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quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steels

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... The main concerns with processing martensitic stainless steels are austenitizing, quenching, tempering/stress relieving, and annealing. Austenitizing is complicated in martensitic stainless steels because many grades contain carbon at levels intended to produce carbides for wear resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... quenching, and then tempered for increased ductility and toughness. This chapter provides a basic understanding of grade designations, properties, corrosion resistance, and general welding considerations of martensitic stainless steels. It also discusses the causes for hydrogen-induced cracking in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...-thickness of hot rolled structural steel plates quenched and tempered to different yield strengths in the range of 480 to 700 MPa (70 to 100 ksi). (a) Widmanstätten ferrite or tempered bainite with carbides. Martensite was not formed in this steel. (b), (c), and (d) present tempered martensite. Prior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition and classification of stainless steels and focuses on the processes involved in heat treatment and applications of these steels. The wrought and the cast stainless steels covered are ferritic, austenitic, duplex (ferritic-austenitic), martensitic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... composition and heat treatment for cutlery applications. Table 13.4 Hardness of as-quenched AISI martensitic stainless steels Carbon range, wt%C As-quenched hardness, R c 0.06–0.14 38–49 0.2–0.4 44–54 0.65–1.2 56–61 Some guidelines for the heat treatment of AISI martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... Tempering of as-quenched martensite The tempering process involves heating steel to any temperature below the Ac 1 temperature. The objective of tempering is to reduce hardness to a desired level and then stop the carbide decomposition by cooling. Direct hardening of steel involves the two-step...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., polythionic acid, and high-temperature environments and the correlating effects on austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. It also discusses the contributing effects of sensitization and hydrogen embrittlement and the role of composition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... stainless steel families are indicated. Martensitic stainless steels may be considered in some aspects equivalent to engineering steels for quenching and tempering (carbon or alloy steels). The main difference is evidently the high chromium content. This leads to extremely high hardenability, a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the classification, composition, properties, treatments, and applications of austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, precipitation-hardening, powder metallurgy, and cast stainless steels. It also reviews the history of stainless steels and provides information on alloy designation systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... 3, “Hardness and Hardenability” ). The maximum hardness that can be achieved by austenitizing martensitic stainless steels is governed by the carbon content. The martensitic microstructures of stainless steels in the as-quenched or quenched and tempered condition are similar in appearance to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... quenching and tempering to yield strength levels as high as 1965 MPa (285 ksi), depending on the carbon content. The lower-carbon alloys have good ductility and toughness properties, which decrease as strength increases. Martensitic stainless steels are hardened by austenitizing at 925 to 1065 °C (1700 to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... common. The border between the more highly alloyed martensitic stainless steels, which undergo secondary hardening during tempering, and the PH alloys is indeed vague. Some authors have astutely treated them as a single group. Here, we treat them separately because they are traditionally considered as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... (DP) steels, transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, and martensitic low-carbon steels. It also discusses twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels along with quenched and partitioned (Q&P) steels. dual-phase steel low-carbon steel microstructure quenched and partitioned steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... and part geometry have different quenching rate requirements in order to produce a fully martensitic microstructure. The quench severity of various quenchants versus cooling rates needed for different steel alloys is shown in Fig. 6.2 . Low-carbon steels need high cooling rates, whereas high-alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of phases detrimental to corrosion resistance or toughness. In austenitic stainless steels, strength is also developed by cold work and strain-induced martensite formation. Martensitic stainless steels can be heat treated by quench and tempering to high hardness and strength. Precipitation-hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... temperatures ( Fig. 5 ) at which it was formed. The carbon levels of austenitic stainless steels are always relatively low, so strain-induced martensite is self-tempering and not brittle. Fig. 4 Variation of martensite formation with temperature and true strain for 304. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement in the annealed condition ( Ref 17 ). As with martensitic stainless steels, this susceptibility is a maximum near room temperature and declines with increasing temperature, as opposed to austenitics, which see their maximum susceptibility above room temperature. This...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... steel was –160 °C (–256 °F), and martensite did not form in quenched 25% Cr alloys. Untempered martensite obviously reduces the toughness and ductility of ferritic stainless steels, and its presence is one cause of the poor ductility of welded type 430. In discussing this work ( Ref 32 ), other...