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quantitative microscopy

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter covers the emerging practice of quantitative microscopy and its application in the study of the microstructure of metals. It describes the methods used to quantify structural gradients, volume fraction, grain size and distribution, and other features of interest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and Form , Dover , 1992 10.1017/CBO9781107325852 7. DeHoff R.T. , Stereology and Metallurgy , Metals Forum , Vol 5 , ( No. 1 ), 1982 , p 4 – 12 8. DeHoff R.T. and Rhines F.N. , Quantitative Microscopy , McGraw-Hill , 1968 9. Russ J. and DeHoff R.T...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... number 5 or higher. Older energy dispersive units with beryllium window detectors are limited to atomic number 11 or higher. Typical uses are: Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis for major and minor elements in metals and alloys Determination of composition and thickness of thin...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... This section is then polished and examined in the metallurgical microscope, both before and after etching. Inclusions present in the material are observed on the as-polished surface. The inclusion rating can be determined by standard quantitative microscopy techniques. By differences in color, reflectivity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... precipitates, and the sigma phase; and the evaluation of the effect of the environment on the tube material, leading to issues such as scaling and corrosion. Some of the more frequently used techniques for characterization of boiler tubes are quantitative metallography (i.e., optical microscopy) using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of an image analysis system. The additional cost can be justified if large amounts of quantitative information are needed on a routine basis. An example would be in evaluating cleanliness of steels for quality control in a production environment. The analysis would yield quantitative information on the number...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... Microscopy of Carbon Steels , American Society for Metals, Metals Park , Ohio ( 1980 ) The materials used in components are now highly diversified, with many applications historically reserved for steels now taken by plastics, composites and ceramics. This change has been brought about by economic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... Compensator,” Polarized Light Microscopy, Olympus Microscopy Resource Center , http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/techniques/polarized/berekcompensator.html 13. Evans A.G. et al. , Mechanisms of Toughening in Rubber Toughened Polymers , Acta Metall. , Vol 34 ( No. 1 ), 1986 , p 79 – 87...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of electron microscopy in metallographic analysis. It explains how electrons interact with metals and how these interactions can be harnessed to produce two- and three-dimensional images of metal surfaces and generate crystallographic and compositional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... coatings. The techniques covered are optical microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam machining, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. The techniques also include electron channeling contrast imaging, X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the principles of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as implemented using conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). It describes the pros and cons of low-energy imaging and diffraction, addresses basic hardware requirements, and provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in the system of a eutectic reaction, and rimming is indicative of a peritectic reaction. Quantitative metallography can be used with the lever rule to determine phase boundaries. Optical metallography is still widely used but has now been expanded to include results from electron microscopy. Electron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be carried out on site. Photographic recording and quantitative analysis possible Resolution limit about 0.5 μm. Small depth of focus. A.3 Electron microscopy A.3.1 Transmission (TEM) examination of very thin section (foil) or surface replica through which electrons are transmitted. Magnification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... , Williams C. C. , “ Surface and Tip Characterization for Quantitative Two Dimensional Dopant Profiling by Scanning Capacitance Microscopy ,” AIP Conference Proceedings 449 , 753 ( 1998 ). 10.1063/1.56861 [11] Kaszuba P. , “ A Technique for Achieving Ultra-smooth Chip Cross Sections...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-destructive localization techniques. The techniques considered for advanced fault isolation are magnetic current imaging for shorts and opens; infrared thermography for electrical shorts; time-domain-reflectometry for shorts and opens; scanning acoustic microscopy; and 2D/3D X-Ray microscopy. The individual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... varies quantitatively from device to device. Figure 10 Schematic cross section of an IC with 5 metal layers and photon emission propagation from the transistor level. Figure 11 Light absorption in silicon for different doping concentrations at 300K [7] . The interconnects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains the difference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... through the use of particle-modified tackifiers or thermoplastic scrims in the interlayer ( Ref 20 ). In analyzing interlayer-modified composites, the sectioning plane and microscopy technique determine the level of detail that can be observed in the interlayer. Cross sections of various particle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the effects that can be observed by light microscopy when a steel in the hardened condition, consisting of martensite and possibly some retained austenite, is heated at subcritical temperatures. It includes micrographs that illustrate the effect of carbide...