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quantitative determination

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... number 5 or higher. Older energy dispersive units with beryllium window detectors are limited to atomic number 11 or higher. Typical uses are: Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis for major and minor elements in metals and alloys Determination of composition and thickness of thin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract This chapter presents a qualitative and quantitative overview of the stresses, strains, forces, and energy associated with metalworking processes and the tribological behavior of metals. It covers key concepts necessary for understanding metalworking tribology, including plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... – ν 2 )] 1/2 ( Ref 4 ). The small-punch test has also been applied to assess the integrity of thermal barrier coated surfaces of hot section components in engines by determining the ceramic tensile spalling strain and fracture toughness ( Ref 6 ). 5.3 Quantitative Fractography Generally...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 13.15 Volume fraction of austenite formed during the treatments inside the critical zone indicated in Fig. 13.14 , as determined by quantitative metallography. Source: Ref 6 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in the system of a eutectic reaction, and rimming is indicative of a peritectic reaction. Quantitative metallography can be used with the lever rule to determine phase boundaries. Optical metallography is still widely used but has now been expanded to include results from electron microscopy. Electron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... out by EDS for qualitative and quantitative estimation of the elements present in the vicinity of the sample surface. Fig. 5.13 Electron transition and x-ray emission The spectrum of x-ray energy versus counts is evaluated to determine the elemental composition of the sampled volume...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...-dimensional observations ( Ref 7 ). Although it is not the object of this book to present the stereological techniques used in quantitative metallography, it is important to highlight some of the problems and difficulties associated with this inference process about the three-dimensional micro...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter covers the emerging practice of quantitative microscopy and its application in the study of the microstructure of metals. It describes the methods used to quantify structural gradients, volume fraction, grain size and distribution, and other features of interest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... attacks beryl, but, because beryllium in this form is considered nontoxic, the method does not thereby suffer. 9.2 Quantitative Procedures for Beryllium Determination 9.2.1 Gravimetric Methods Gravimetric methods are employed where accuracy takes precedence over speed and ease of analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... As C.3 and C.4, but the output is converted using photomultipliers to direct reading of elemental concentrations As C.3 and C.4 As C.3 and C.4. Rapid techniques for quantitative information in which up to 20 elements may be determined during each analysis As C.3 and C.4. (Note C, S, and P in metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... parameters will yield identical sample chromatograms between different instruments. Absolute quantitative results are not possible strictly by instrumental electronic response. This parameter as it relates to quantitative evaluation is determined by an operator. Every polymer mixture has its own response...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... vision is the ability to analyze qualitative aspects of an object or a scene. However, humans are not particularly adept at measuring quantitative data. For example, although human vision uses a sophisticated approach for depth perception that allows it to correctly determine the relative distance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... be used to determine whether: Design deficiencies led to the failure. The material was not adequate. Limitations on operating conditions, such as maximum load, or maximum temperature, were not followed. Fracture mechanics is a well-developed quantitative approach to the study of failures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
..., an experiment is necessary to confirm or rule out suspected causes. The predominant methods for doing this are analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Taguchi methods (a more powerful technique based on ANOVA). Analysis of Variance ANOVA is an analytical technique that determines if differences in average...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of the microprobe is that it can perform quantitative analysis. This is achieved with the use of “pure” element standards representing each element being determined. The primary electron beam can focus on a particular spot of the constituent being analyzed. The quantity of x-rays that have a characteristic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... arbitrary element along the potential crack path can therefore be determined using an appropriate stress analysis based on the theory of elasticity. The total life of each element can be calculated from the fatigue properties (i.e., strain amplitude/cycles to failure curve) of the material and the strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... impacts usually create a more catastrophic damage and can result in holes through the thickness of the composite, and therefore, visible damage. Accordingly, the mechanism of how composites fail is determined by the impact parameters, material characteristics, and composite design and manufacturing ( Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... inspection data, or by examining other quantitative data). Now consider techniques to use statistical data to predict future outcomes. The normal curve represents a population, and from it, one can determine the likelihood that a particular sample will be above or below a value on the x -axis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... None of these tests have any quantitative “acceptance” limits, such as the yield strength requirements of a specific alloy when tensile tested ( Ref 2 ). All weldability tests involve either actual welding or simulated welding. Those involving actual welding require that the test coupons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... such an expression, the chemical activity of the water is found to be an important variable in determining the reaction rate. Because the key variable is the chemical activity of the water (i.e., its partial pressure relative to saturation in a given environment) rather than its absolute concentration, completely...