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pulse-echo method

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of ultrasonic flaw detectors, ultrasonic transducers, and search units and couplants. It then discusses the principles of operation, presentation, and interpretation of data of pulse echo and transmission methods. This is followed by sections providing information on general characteristics of ultrasonic waves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... ultrasonics Since through transmission is not capable of detecting all types of foreign objects or the depth of defects, pulse echo ultrasonic inspection is frequently used in conjunction with through transmission ultrasonics to inspect parts. In the pulse echo method ( Fig. 12.3 ), the sound...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 4 Schematic showing position of probe relative to flaw inside of bar and resulting wave display obtained for two methods of ultrasonic flaw detection. (a) Normal beam method. (b) Angle beam method. Wave display nomenclature: T, transmit pulse; S, surface reflection echo; F 1 , flaw echo More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of pulse-echo analysis. This analysis mode is the dominant method used for package inspection due to the ability to identify in many package types the exact interface at which a defect occurs, in addition to the wealth of information contained in the reflected signal as previously discussed. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... more attention in the literature than any other NDE method, because of its use in critical applications, such as in the nuclear industry, and because it requires the highest level of skill. Like sonar, the method relies on propagating pulses of sound through a medium and then picking up reflected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Weldments made by the various welding processes may contain discontinuities that are characteristic of that process. This chapter discusses the different welding processes as well as the discontinuities typical of each process. It provides a detailed discussion on the methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... usually determined by pulse echo ultrasonics. Two or more holes are generally required, one for injection and one for venting. To help the resin flow into a tight delamination, it is helpful to preheat the delaminated area to 120 to 140 °F (50 to 60 °C). Preheating reduces the resin’s viscosity and helps...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Fig. 4 Schematic showing position of probe relative to flaw inside of bar and resulting wave display obtained for two methods of ultrasonic flaw detection. (a) Normal beam method. (b) Angle beam method. Wave display nomenclature: T, transmit pulse; S, surface reflection echo; F 1 , flaw echo; B 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The inspection of castings normally involves checking for shape and dimensions, coupled with aided and unaided visual inspection for external discontinuities and surface quality. This chapter discusses methods for determining surface quality, internal discontinuities, and dimensional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... waves. The frequency is usually on the order of 200 kHz, which is beyond the audible range of the human ear. When an object to be detected comes into the path of the ultrasonic signal, the pulses are either reflected or echoed back from the target to the sensor ( Ref 15.17 ). The sensor determines...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of (a) the nature and orientation of the interface or flaw; and, (b) the acoustic impedance of such a reflector. Energy reflected from various interfaces and flaws can be used to define the presence and locations of flaws, the thickness of the material, and the depth of a flaw beneath a surface. Pulse echo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... The destructiveness and/or inadequacy of these common inspection methods has long been recognized, and as a result, nondestructive methods have been extensively studied. The pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of spot welds is now feasible. Diffusion Welding Diffusion welding (also known as diffusion bonding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the focus away from set periods of inspection (prescriptive regime) to the setting of inspection periods that reflected the true condition and nature of the equipment and its specific service conditions (risk-based regime). Allied to this, developments in equipment, methods, and procedures for noninvasive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... architectures as well as the use of ten or more back-end metallization levels serving as interconnect to route internal signals to different areas across the die, these previously indispensable probing methods are now seldom considered. Accordingly, as the semiconductor industry proliferates higher speed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... is affected by thickness, alloy segregation, and the energy of the probing radiation. Results should be interpreted by experienced personnel. Ultrasonics (Pulse Echo) A pulse of acoustical energy (high-frequency sound waves) is passed through a part, reflected from any surfaces it encounters...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the advantages and disadvantages of metal matrix composites and the methods used to produce them. It begins with a review of the composition and properties of aluminum matrix composites. It then describes discontinuous composite processing methods, including stir...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... of solders. Further, the chapter considers methods for quantifying the mechanical integrity of joints and predicting their dimensional stability under specified environmental conditions. It discusses the effects of rare earth elements on the properties of solders. The chapter concludes with information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... composites, including those produced by preform infiltration and powder metallurgy (PM) techniques. Processing methods for discontinuous aluminum MMCs include various casting processes, liquid metal infiltration, spray deposition, and PM. Each of these processes is briefly reviewed in the following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... are usually applied by either wet plating or vapor deposition techniques. Tin coatings can be applied by dipping methods. The choice of deposition method is determined by various factors, such as the size of the component, its geometry, the required scale of production, the capital and running costs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... for boiler components and assemblies. It demonstrates the use of various methods, including analytical techniques that estimate life expenditure based on operating history, component geometry, and material properties; predictive methods based on the extrapolation of failure statistics; methods that predict...