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pulse width modulation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... packages, fault isolation to pinpoint the exact location of the fail in a fully packaged module has become a challenge nondestructively. Electrical Characterization To fully characterize a failing module received after a standard test sequence is applied, additional electrical probing may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of the activity that causes the shmoo fail. TR-LADA can be categorized by the order of magnitude of the pulse width of the laser. Microsecond TR-LADA is implemented with a modulated continuous wave laser [10 , 14] and is useful for determining the interaction time within tens of microseconds but offers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... The LVT gate is set to match the pulse width of the signal. Note here that this particular gate positioning provides an optimal example – more realistic scenarios, where the gate width is increased to allow for uncertainty in the precise timing of the signal, will offer more challenging analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... illustrates the basic components involved in the EOTPR system [3] . It contains an ultrafast laser source, a transceiver module, a high-speed probe, a light detection and modulation module, and a readout and display instrument. The ultrafast laser source emits a high-speed optical pulse signal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... integrated circuits. Regardless, IR systems will continue to be used in areas such as multi-chip modules, circuit boards, and IC packaging issues as they have been for years where absolute, non-contact measurements are essential and sub-micron spatial resolution is not needed. Figure 3 IR thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.t56090021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
... also explains how time-domain and electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry are used to find shorts and opens in ICs and how challenges related to heterogenous integration may be met through design for testability (DFT) and built-in self-test (BIST) accommodations and the use of passive interposers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... but non-emitting components, such as photodetectors, modulators, and switches. The third category contains inactive components, such as waveguides, filters, or splitters, where no bias is applied. In this chapter, we focus on the first category, and particularly on semiconductor lasers. Semiconductor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... on each device, and the more likely that there will be parametric yield loss for the BIST circuitry alone. Ramp generation techniques that use sigma-delta bit patterns [11] or pulse-width modulation [12] comprise digital circuitry followed by a low pass filter whose characteristics are unimportant, so...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.9781627084628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... is at a localized maximum in a narrow short between two larger conductors; a rapid decrease in current density where a strong narrow path quickly disperse into, for example, a ground place; and a long path with relatively constant current density where the shorted path is approximately the same width as the source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.9781627084352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... shaft exceeds the calculated value. In a gear set with backlash, the pinion starts to rotate ahead of the gear and does not make contact with the gear tooth surface until it takes up the slack. This causes various problems ranging from high impacts between pinion and gear teeth to the modulation of gear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Magnetic Sector Ion detection Serial Continuous Parallel detection Mass separation Modulating electric field Flight time Magnetic deflection Mass resolution 500 - 1000 500 - 4000 <10,000 Duty cycle No pulsing Pulsed Beam No pulsing Transmission ~1% 10% 40 - 60...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... GS is defined as the gate threshold voltage V t . The nonsaturated and off-states exist in CMOS logic circuits when the clock pulse is off, and all voltages have settled to their quiescent values. Fig. 2a Carrier inversion in non-saturated bias state. The saturated state occurs when...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...). Because most powder-binder mixtures are not ductile, the strength measurement is performed using three-point bending. This transverse rupture strength test, also called the modulus of rupture test, relies on a green rectangular sample that is bent to fracture. The length, width, and thickness are commonly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... channels (light). Figure 16 Topographic and corresponding dopant profile images of planar NFETs (lower image). Averaged topographic and dopant profiles are plotted and shown in the upper portion of the image. The topographic and dopant line profiles have been averaged across the width...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... seep into (and be drawn into) various types of minute surface openings (as fine as 0.1 μm, or 4 μin., in width) by capillary action. Therefore, the process is well suited to detect all types of surface cracks, laps, porosity, shrinkage areas, laminations, and similar discontinuities. It is used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... pulse widths; there is a fair amount of variation. Regardless of the rating, however, minimizing shocks during assembly and usage is very important. The notion of mechanical shock being a risk for MEMS followed a similar path of awareness and mitigation as ESD did when it was first discovered: both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... modulation of the reflected light. The specific characteristic of PE is electroluminescence [1] , the optical interaction just by electrical operation. There is no external light stimulus that may produce unwanted artefacts. In ICs, the typical PE phenomenon is an intraband effect of carriers gaining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... from the ratio of on time to off time or, more specifically, from the number and width of the output pulses. This type of controller can be used with induction heating power-supply contactors, silicon-controlled rectifiers, and RF power supplies. Current-proportioning controllers produce a continuous...