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propane

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... winding in the computer age. Then, the chapter discusses the requirements for filament winding in manufacturing oil and gas industry components and in high-volume production of sporting goods, propane tanks, and curing ovens. The chapter concludes with examples of the versatility of filament winding...
Image
Published: 01 September 2011
Fig. 2.20 Five-spindle, high-production winder shown winding liquefied petroleum gas (propane) tanks More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., particularly at short times. Many bladesmiths use furnaces that are heated by combustion of air-natural gas or air-propane. Both natural gas (CH 4 ) and propane (C 3 H 8 ) are hydrocarbon gases containing hydrogen and carbon. Combustion with air will produce gas mixtures of CO, CO 2 , and H 2 , and the %CO...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... process, a combustible gas serves as the heat source that melts the coating material, which may be in rod, wire, or powder form. Commonly selected gases include acetylene, propane, methyl-acetylene-propadiene (MAPP) gas, and hydrogen, along with oxygen. In general, changing the nozzle and/or air cap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... martensite. The surface is heated by a gas flame created by burning acetylene, propane, or natural gas. The relatively low thermal conductivity of steel enables the surface regions to be austenitized using high rates of energy input without the interior being significantly affected. Flame hardening can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... 8 . Two new designs for small pressure vessels have gained wider use. Isotensoid vessels ( Fig. 1.2 ) are essentially composite pressure vessels with Isotensoid domes but without a cylindrical section. They are proposed for use as liquid propane gas containers and would be placed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...-carbon steel, there is insufficient carbon in the steel to promote formation of the dominant ε-nitride phase; therefore, hydrocarbon gas (methane or propane) must be added. The usual recommendation is approximately 2% by volume of the total gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. This will be sufficient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... resistance to erosion attack, and Al 2 O 3 -forming alloys (CoCrAlY and Ni20Al) were much more resistant to erosion attack presumably due to formation of aluminum oxide scales. Ives ( Ref 24 ) conducted erosion tests in a combustion gas stream using a propane-fired abrasive jet rig at 975 °C (1790 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... can be flame hardened. For best results, the carbon content should be at least 0.35%, the usual range being 0.40 to 0.50%. Gases used for flame heating are acetylene and propane. Each of these gases is mixed with air in particular ratios and burnt under pressure to generate the flame...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... is largely methane (CH 4 ), is the most common source of carbon for gas carburizing. Where natural gas supplies are unreliable or varies in composition, propane may be used also as a carbon source. However, undiluted natural gas or propane is much too rich to use directly so that only small quantities (5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... (Compressive) Stress Levels Distortion Materials Applications Flame Hardening Quenching Applicable Materials Equipment Gases Three basic gases are used for flame hardening: acetylene, MAPP (methylacetylene propadiene), and propane. These gases are each mixed with air in particular...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of the many control output modes. Fig. 6 Programmable digital carbon controller. Courtesy of Honeywell, Inc. Because of the fast response rate of probes, on/off control systems utilizing solenoid valves for regulating propane, natural gas, or liquid enrichment are sometimes adequate for batch...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... with a propane torch to an orange color for approximately 20 s and immediately quenched in a beaker of water. The temperature produces austenite over a short length of the rods, and the quench converts it to martensite + retained austenite. If the first rod is placed in a vice with the discolored heated section...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... at the process temperature for the steel being carburized. The boost step is achieved by backfilling the vacuum chamber to a partial pressure with either a pure hydrocarbon gas (for example, propane or acetylene) or a mixture of hydrocarbon gases. Ammonia can be added if nitrogen alloying of the case is desired...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... the flame and rapidly quench the work to produce martensite on the surface. The surface is heated by a gas flame created by burning acetylene, propane, or natural gas. The relatively low thermal conductivity of steel enables the surface regions to be austenitized using high rates of energy input without...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...-temperature flame on the surface area to be hardened. The high-temperature flame is obtained by combustion of a mixture of a fuel gas with oxygen or air. Fuel gases commonly used are acetylene, methylacetylene propadiene (MAPP) gas, or propane. Fuel gas selection is based on the flame temperature desired...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... is approximately 10 parts air to 1 part gas; whereas for propane, the ideal ratio is 23 parts air to 1 part gas. When an excess of air exists in the mixture, loose scale forms. When the mixture contains an excess of fuel, a tight adherent oxide is formed on the workpiece surfaces. In all instances, a certain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... equal to 1 h per inch of thickness. When working with propane-fired furnaces having considerable gas flow, as is often done by bladesmiths, the times to achieve the austenitization temperature can be significantly reduced. Similarly, austenitizing in salt pots will reduce times to heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... on the size and type of casting, type of metal, and the configuration of the contacts to be cut. A popular method of cutting is oxy-gas torch cutting for burning, utilizing acetylene, natural gas, propane, or proprietary fuel gases. When cutting the higher chromium or stainless steels, iron powder may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... on the Degussa Tufftride process, which involves the decomposition of cyanide to cyanate ( Ref 2 ). A gaseous process that is based on a mixed-gas composition of ammonia and propane in equal proportions further demonstrated that the compound layer would be predominantly ε-phase in the immediate surface...