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processing of refractory metals

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-temperature oxidizing environments in space. Usage at one time was limited to lamp filaments, electron tube grids, heating elements, and electrical contacts. Today, refractory metals are also found in applications in the aerospace, electronic, nuclear, and chemical processing industries. Molybdenum (Mo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the role of alloying in the production and use of common refractory metals, including molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium. It provides an overview of each metal and its alloys, describing the compositions, properties, and processing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Molybdenum 31.4 Tungsten 31.5 Rhenium 31.6 Fabrication 31.7 Refractory Metal Protective Coatings Acknowledgments References References 1. Caron R.N. and Staley J.T. , Effects of Composition, Processing, and Structure on Properties of Nonferrous Alloys , Materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... process are in the order of 3 h. When the arc furnace charge has been melted, adjusted to the desired temperature, and deslagged, it is poured into a transfer vessel. Generally, a transfer ladle (a refractory-lined vessel with a pour lip) is positioned in front of the arc furnace, and the furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... that make and break electrical circuits. Contacts are made of either elemental metals or alloys made by the melt-cast method or composites manufactured by powder metallurgy (P/M) processes. Powder metallurgy facilitates combinations of metals that ordinarily cannot be achieved by conventional alloying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... processing powder processing sheet forming Liquid to Solid Processing Bulk Forming of Solid Metals Hot Working versus Cold Working Sheet Forming Polymer Processing Powder Processing Modern Manufacturing Techniques References References 13.1 Hosford W.F. , Materials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Interactions of iron, aluminum, and beryllium. Source: Walsh et al. 1971 The refractory-metal beryllides of compositions MBe 13 , MBe 12 , and M 2 Be 17 have unique combinations of properties that include high-temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance, and low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., cupola, crucible, and vacuum melting, and common casting techniques such as sand casting, plaster and shell casting, evaporative pattern casting, investment casting, permanent mold casting, cold and hot chamber die casting, squeeze casting, semisolid metal processing, and centrifugal casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
..., refractory/metal reactions Nonmetallic in situ MgO, Al 2 O 3 films, clusters, and disperoids; MgAl 2 O 4 films and clusters Melting, alloying: metal transfer turbulence Homogeneous halide salts MgCl 2 -NaCl-CaCl 2 , etc. Poor separation of fluxing reaction products Particle/salt MgCl 2 -NaCl...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... into an AOD vessel, which consists of a refractory-lined steel shell mounted on a tiltable trunnion ring ( Fig. 12 ). As shown in Fig. 12 , process gases (oxygen, argon, and nitrogen) are injected through submerged, side-mounted tuyeres. The dilution of oxygen with inert gas, argon, or nitrogen causes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... issue. Filter material must satisfy strength, refractoriness, thermal shock resistance, and corrosion resistance so that it performs its purpose. There are various types of filters used in the casting process, such as metal or fiber glass screen, rotary degassing, bed filters, bonded particle filters...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of strength and/or ductility in service. Primary and Secondary Carbides Chromium-Rich and Refractory Metal Carbides The occurrence of intermetallic phases in nickel-base alloys carries both good and bad connotations. On the positive side, the nickel-base system has been the most widely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... producers to face this challenge and develop specific powders for cold spray applications. Also, the range of metals and alloys that can be cold sprayed is rapidly increasing, which creates a demand for developing new powder manufacturing processes that enable cost-effective production of specific cold...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... cooling. From R. M. Storey, Metal Progress , Vol 101, No. 4, April, 1972, p 95 ( Ref 5 ) Fig. 10.12 Schematic illustration of a transverse-flux induction heat treatment line used for processing of aluminum alloy sheet. From R. Waggott, et al., Metals Technology , Vol 9, December, 1982, p 493...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... limited properties. These developments, however, were decisive in making iron casting viable and triggering the development of refining processes for steelmaking. The combination of an iron ore reducing process with metal refining processes has created the modern concept of a steel mill, schematically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) process ( Ref 23 ). A total of about 21,000 lb of alloy 625 weld overlay metal was applied to this boiler. The performance of the waterwall overlay of alloy 625 in this first overlaid waterwall proved to be very successful during the next 3 to 4 years of boiler operation. Between 1989 and 1990, a total...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... and Protective Coatings , Koul A.K. , Ed., National Research Council of Canada , Ottawa , 1994 , p 34 – 53 2. Praveen K.V.U. , Sastry G.V.S. , and Singh V. , Work Hardening Behavior of the Ni-Fe Based Superalloy IN718 , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 39 , 2008 , p 65 – 78...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... temperature than does the iron base metal. The presence of this refractory oxide on the surfaces to be joined makes it more difficult to obtain a defect-free weld. Thermal cutting of stainless steels is routinely practiced, but the processes and parameters used are determined by the refractory nature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... of composition and processing make the cost of superalloys typically in the range of 30 to 200 times that of plain stainless steel ( Ref 2 ). Although there are a number of other material groups that can be used at high temperatures, such as ceramics and refractory metal alloys, superalloys are unsurpassed...