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process economics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... to illustrate the economic considerations in design and application of induction heating processes. References References 1. Burwell C. C. , “ Industrial Electrification: Current Trends ,” Research Memorandum 0RAU/IEA-83-4 (M), Institute for Energy Analysis , Oak Ridge Associated Universities...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract Powder metallurgy (P/M) is a flexible metalworking process for the production of gears. The P/M process is capable of producing close tolerance gears with strengths to 1240 MPa at economical prices in higher volume quantities. This chapter discusses the capabilities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... 8.7 Process Limits, Defects, and Process Window in SHF-P 8.8 Process Simulation—Room-Temperature Sheet Hydroforming 8.9 Elevated-Temperature Sheet Hydroforming 8.10 Industrial Applications of Sheet Hydroforming 8.11 Sheet Hydroforming Process Economics References References 8.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., Radevormwald Fig. 8.8 Lenticular alpha microstructure in (a) as-cast Ti-6Al-4V and (b) cast + hot isostatic pressed Ti-6Al-4V. A, prior-beta grain; B, grain-boundary alpha; C, alpha plate colony; D, gas pore; E, shrinkage pore Abstract Abstract Casting is the most economical processing route...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... to determine whether a problem occurred during processing and at what stage it occurred. It is certainly uneconomical to complete an expensive heat treatment only to find a problem that could have been caught in an early stage of processing. From strictly an economic point of view, the part being heat treated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
...Abstract Abstract Casting is one of the most economical manufacturing processes for providing shape to components of machinery and is used in a wide range of industries. This chapter is a brief account of the advantages, applications, limitations, and market growth of aluminum casting. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... management systems (EMS) (% of employees) Lost time injury frequency rate (injuries/million hours worked) Employee training (training days/employee and year) Investment in new processes and products (% of revenue) Economic value distributed (% of revenue) Steelmaking requires less energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... R.B. , Material Selection Criteria for Chemical Processing Equipment , Met. Prog. , Feb 1978 , p 42 117. “Economic Effects of Metallic Corrosion in the United States,” Special Publication 511-1, United States Bureau of Standards , 1978 118. Elliott P. , Fowler C.M...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... variables on product quality and process economics. Figure 2.1 shows the different components of the forging system. The key to a successful forging operation, i.e., to obtaining the desired shape and properties, is the understanding and control of the metal flow. The direction of metal flow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... experimental and computational modeling studies of the process as well as investigations of materials properties and bonding mechanisms, process economics (including an experimental helium recycling system provided by Praxair), and the development of process improvements to resolve early production-readiness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as applications of the system. Factors concerning the economic justification of anodic protection are also described. References References 1. Riggs O.L. and Locke C.E. , Anodic Protection: Theory and Practice in the Prevention of Corrosion , Plenum Press , 1981 10.1007/978-1-4684-3872-7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... in plastics product design consist of a series of rules. These rules are based on the behavior of the plastic melt during processing and the behavior of plastics materials in service. Adherence to the guidelines leads to economical manufacturing and good part performance in the end-use application. What...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... that some level of working (i.e., deformation) enhances inspectability of the product and increases uniformity of products. Unfortunately, process economics do not allow subsequent working because it nullifies the objectives of powder technology by increasing costs. Heat treatment response after...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... The resultant cooled water is recirculated through the system, affording economical operation of the process. More specifically, the hot water coming out from the condenser is fed to the tower on the top and allowed to trickle in the form of a thin ribbon or water droplets. The countercurrent flow of air from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... of type 410 martensitic stainless steel Fig. 11 Heat-recovery steam generator Fig. 12 Feedwater economizer, finned tube harp assembly Fig. 13 The iron-chromium (Fe-Cr) alloy phase diagram. Fig. 3 Grain boundary martensite formation in a type 430 ferritic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... process becomes one of determining which of the candidate materials provides the most economical solution for the particular service. Consideration of corrosion resistance is often as important in the selection process as the mechanical properties of the alloy. A common solution to a corrosion problem...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the basic concepts of corrosion, discussing chemical reactions, ion transfer mechanisms, electrochemical processes and variables, and the formation of solid corrosion products. It presents a simple but effective teaching tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... for rod and tube extrusion is determined by the specific extrusion process, as previously discussed in Chapter 3, “Rod and Tube Extrusion Processes.” Ideally, the machinery and equipment should have flexibility but, also, provide specific extrusion process with the optimum quality and economic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... furnace, silicon and manganese recovery into the pig iron can vary. In large steel mills, a balance must be reached to optimize the economics of the pig iron production and the needs for further refining in the steelmaking processes. Generally the pig iron produced in large steel mills is used only...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Corporation , Pittsburgh, PA , April 1977 . The manufacturing processes used to produce aerospace forgings depend on several factors, including component geometry, property requirements, and economics [ Williams, 1996 , and Noel et al., 1997 ]. With regard to economics, all forging operations must...