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probability of detection

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... control. (a) Residual strength in terms of stress. (b) Crack growth and time period when inspection can be performed. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 7 Signal/noise density distribution for (a) large, (b) medium, and (c) small flaw size. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 8 Probability of crack detection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to access, orientation, and type of defect. The inspection function should be independent of normal maintenance functions to ensure that the inspector reports objectively. The choice of inspection technique must have a high probability of detection for the type and size of the defect expected...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Any seam in the forging stock or incipient laps or cracks will probably develop into significant forging laps or cracks if not detected during formation. Consequently, in hammer forging, a large percentage of such potentially scrap forgings can be removed from the production run and can either...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Exponential Distribution where λ = 1. The Weibull Distribution Figure 7 Weibull Distribution Probability Density Function. Abstract Abstract This chapter surveys both basic quality and basic reliability concepts as an introduction to the failure analysis professional. It begins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... (a) Solenoid type coil is applied to cylindrical or tubular parts. (b) Pancake type coil applied to a flat surface. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 7 Electromagnetic yoke, showing position and magnetic field to detect discontinuities parallel to a weld bead. Discontinuities across a weld bead can be detected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... are probably the most widely used for the inspection of welded steel tubing in diameters up to 75 mm (3 in.), although these methods are not limited to the smaller diameters. Typical weld imperfections detectable by eddy current inspection are shown in Fig. 2 . In welded tubing, most flaws occur in or near...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... 1997 , pp. 145 – 151 , 1997 . • Wu N.M. , et al. , “ Back side emission microscopy for failure analysis, ” Proc. SPIE 2874 , pp. 238 – 247 , Sep. 1996 . 10.1117/12.250832 • http://optics.org/article/38064 • Tan S. et al. , “ Detectivity Optimization of InGaAs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... small quantity (probably on the order of 1 × 10 −12 ) at ambient temperature. Alloys containing more than 2% C are termed cast irons and have structures that are determined principally by a eutectic transformation occurring at about 1150 °C; cast irons are not considered in this book. Steels often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... arise. Is the test criterion inadequate? Is the test being performed to evaluate the hardware not appropriate for the material? What is the probability of detection (POD) of the inspection procedure? A POD provides an indication as to how often the inspection procedure will find the defect level...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... at the grain boundaries after long aging times (some grain-boundary pits are indicated by the arrow in Fig. 4.19 (Part 2) h ); the adjoining grain-boundary regions then tend to be depleted of pits. The pitting may be detectable at all magnifications, although it must be quite advanced before it can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
..., the cause or causes of failure cannot always be determined with certainty. In this instance, the investigation should determine the most probable cause or causes of failure, distinguishing findings based on demonstrated facts from conclusions based on conjecture. In most cases, the conclusion should...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... conformance with customer drawings and documents, which are frequently based on various government, technical society, or commercial specifications. For a foundry to ensure casting quality, inspection procedures must be efficiently directed toward the prevention of imperfections, the detection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... with photographic recording. Suitable for on-site/ remote use. Nondestructive (but see limitations). National and international standards for inspection exist. Only surface-breaking cracks or defects detected. May not detect either closed or very open cracks. Dye may contaminate surface corrosion products/films...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... mm plate; finish rolled at a comparatively high temperature. 195 HV. Picral. 100×. (h) 0.24C-0.06Si-1.52Mn-0.04Nb (wt%). As-rolled 12 mm plate; finish rolled at a comparatively high temperature. 195 HV. Picral. 1000×. (c) to (f) P, pearlite; B, probable bainite. (i) Three stages of the hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (a) Intact blade. (b) Fractured blade Fig. 25 Micrograph of the blade fracture surface showing several turning gear imprints and the oxidized area (dotted line) Fig. 27 (a) General view of the probable initial region of crack nucleation by fatigue crack. (b) Magnification of the region...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... with a ball or hemispherical head punch. The punch is advanced at a constant displacement rate, deforming the specimen against a die. The load is recorded as a function of the punch displacement. A borescope with a video camera is used to examine continuously the bulged specimen surface for detecting crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., including: Identification of shapes Measurement of distances and ranges Gaging of sizes and dimensions Determining orientation of parts Quantifying motion Detecting surface shading These functional capabilities allow users to employ machine vision systems for cost-effective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in lifetime affects all parts on the wafer nearly equally. As a result, a lot acceptance test can easily screen out the defective parts. Regrettably, the lag between having an oxygen leak on the reactor and detecting it at the end of the process of wafer fabrication and testing may be as long as two months...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of cracks originating in the component from flaws that already existed or that formed during service. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is employed to detect at an early stage subsurface flaws and internal flaws in the component, their type, size, orientation, and location. In a failed component, there may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... is usually well established and fixed. Thus, simple measurements are made to detect deviations from the norm. Typically, these measurements include grain size, volume fraction of phases or constituents, interlamellar spacing, degree of spheroidization, and depth of decarburization. In research studies...