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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
...Abstract Abstract Failure analysis can sometimes involve considerations of statistics and probability. This chapter reviews some of the basic types of statistical distributions in order to understand some basic principles in their use. The main focus is on the uses of the normal distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
...Abstract Abstract Quantifying a fault-tree analysis is a useful tool for assessing the most likely causes of a system failure. This chapter addresses fault-tree analysis event probabilities and ranking of failure causes based on these probabilities. Failure rates, failure-rate sources...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
...Abstract Abstract Besides the induction coil and workpiece, the induction generator (source of ac power) is probably the most important component of an overall induction heating system. Such equipment is typically rated in terms of its frequency and maximum output power (in kilowatts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... control. (a) Residual strength in terms of stress. (b) Crack growth and time period when inspection can be performed. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 7 Signal/noise density distribution for (a) large, (b) medium, and (c) small flaw size. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 8 Probability of crack detection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
.... The undeveloped event “Aircraft tire blowout” combined with the INHIBIT condition “Fragments hit hydraulic line” cause the command event “Aircraft tire blowout ruptures hydraulic line.” Most of the time, the condition described in the INHIBIT ellipse can be tied to a probability. For example, suppose...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and analysis of data. The information gathered in these stages must be systematically linked to arrive at the cause or the most probable cause of the failure. The use of fault trees is one important diagnostic tool that helps sort out data and identify probable causes. The fault tree method is a procedure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., the fracture surfaces had suffered damage. The cause and type of loading pattern for fatigue crack initiation and propagation could not be ascertained. The probable cause could be fretting fatigue. The exact sequence could not be established because of the absence of all the fractured pieces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...-injection pumps failed during assembly. The fracture initiated at the thread roots. Fractography indicated brittle intergranular failure. The most probable cause of the failure was hydrogen embrittlement. Max screws failed during assembly in fuel-injection pumps. Their specified heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of attention was the LPT blade locking plate region because fractures and damages in all other components appeared to be secondary. It is probable that the first event was the dislodgement of the LPT blade locking plate from its position because of the shearing of the screws holding it, under the centrifugal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... lower than for metals, typically below 10 MPa (9 ksi), while for metals they can exceed 110 MPa  m (100 ksi  in . ). There is also considerable scatter in the fracture strength for ceramics, which can be explained by the dependence of fracture strength on the probability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
.... When washed with soap and water, the cars looked as good as new. VIA Rail estimated that the cost of restoration would be less than $1 million per car, which they figured was probably about half of what it would cost for a new car. In other words, it could be said that each stainless steel shell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... of crystal structures. The term cementite probably was derived from cement carbon , referring to that carbon introduced into steel by the cementation process, and has been modified in numerous ways in attempts to provide specific information about microstructure. Thus, the ISI definition made reference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... small quantity (probably on the order of 1 × 10 −12 ) at ambient temperature. Alloys containing more than 2% C are termed cast irons and have structures that are determined principally by a eutectic transformation occurring at about 1150 °C; cast irons are not considered in this book. Steels often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (a) Intact blade. (b) Fractured blade Fig. 25 Micrograph of the blade fracture surface showing several turning gear imprints and the oxidized area (dotted line) Fig. 27 (a) General view of the probable initial region of crack nucleation by fatigue crack. (b) Magnification of the region...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
..., therefore, has a critical influence on the probability of galling and scoring of gear teeth. The permissible value of this critical factor is influenced by gear metal, gear design, character of lubricant, and method of lubricant application. Lubrication Lubrication is accomplished on gear teeth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
.... Experiments ( Ref 10 ) have shown that flame-hardened and induction-hardened gears have less resistance to micropitting than carburized gears of the same hardness. This is probably due to the lower carbon content of the surface layers of the flame-hardened and induction-hardened gears. The following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... or energy to separate the metal from the sulfur or oxygen. This energy can be supplied in the form of heat, and the first extractions were probably accidental: A fire got out of hand and mineral samples that had been collected for their beauty were heated, resulting in copper metal; a fire was built near...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Exponential Distribution where λ = 1. The Weibull Distribution Figure 7 Weibull Distribution Probability Density Function. Abstract Abstract This chapter surveys both basic quality and basic reliability concepts as an introduction to the failure analysis professional. It begins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... failure probability, F , at an applied stress, σ, is given by: (Eq 9.2) F σ = 1 − exp − V V O σ − σ U σ O M where V is the sample volume, and σ U is the proof stress that must be exceeded for failure (if the samples are not subjected to proof...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... thickness to be 2 R , while one may argue that it should be 4 R, which includes precipitates that are barely touching the glide plane. Given a plane of area A with N particles distributed randomly on the surface, show that the probability distribution function P ( r ) of the nearest neighbor...