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primary damage mechanism

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract Unlike metals, in which fatigue failures are due to a single crack that grows to a critical length, the effects of fatigue in composites are much more distributed and varied. As the chapter explains, there are five major damage mechanisms that contribute to the progression of composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... loading can lead to delamination, the primary failure mode of most composites, and describes some of the methods that have been developed to improve delamination resistance, assess damage tolerance, determine residual strength, and predict failure modes. composite laminate damage tolerance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This appendix presents an analytical model that estimates damage rates for both crack initiation and propagation mechanisms. The model provides a nonarbitrary definition of fatigue crack initiation length, which serves as an analytical link between initiation and propagation analyses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of projectiles in the damaged front portion of the aircraft, investigators established the inside of the waste towel receptacle below the wash basin in the front toilet compartment as the center of explosion. Thus, by fractography, the primary cause of the accident was proved to be the detonation of an explosive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... In an aircraft engine, the gear system failed after 40 hours of run. The driven gear had fractured, and a portion of it had fallen off. The remaining teeth of this gear, the teeth of the driving bevel gear, and the pinion of the shaft had been damaged. The primary cause for the fracture of the driven gear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... fractures from one mechanism (a “basket case”), one should determine if any of the fractures is a fatigue fracture. If definite evidence of a fatigue fracture can be found, this is usually the source of the problem—the primary fracture. Fatigue fracture is the normal, or expected, type of fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an outline of the failure modes and mechanisms associated with most boiler tube failures in coal-fired power plants. Primary categories include stress rupture failures, water-side corrosion, fire-side corrosion, fire-side erosion, fatigue, operation failures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., repair and maintenance history, service abnormalities, and abuses, if any, would also become clear during the analysis. Ultimately, the sequence of the failure would get established, differentiating between the primary cause of the failure event and the consequential secondary failures and damages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Combustion byproducts such as soot, ash, and abrasive particulates can inflict significant damage to boiler tubes through the cumulative effect of erosion. This chapter examines the types of erosion that occur on the fire side of boiler components and the associated causes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... information on the stress-rupture test used to measure the time it takes for a metal to fail at a given stress at elevated temperature. The major classes of creep mechanism, namely Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep, are then covered. The chapter also provides information on three primary modes of elevated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter compares and contrasts the high-temperature behaviors of metals and composites. It describes the use of creep curves and stress-rupture testing along with the underlying mechanisms in creep deformation and elevated-temperature fracture. It also discusses creep-life...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... impacts usually create a more catastrophic damage and can result in holes through the thickness of the composite, and therefore, visible damage. Accordingly, the mechanism of how composites fail is determined by the impact parameters, material characteristics, and composite design and manufacturing ( Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... or changes in carbide spacings with creep-life expenditure. It has been observed that, in many structural applications, cavitation is the principal damage mechanism in brittle zones, weld HAZs, and high-stress regions in the base metal ( Ref 20 ). In other cases, carbide coarsening can provide a better...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... or caustic gouging. The damage mechanism of boiler tubes by caustic corrosion or caustic gouging is discussed separately in this book. Under-Deposit Corrosion Under-deposit corrosion is a consequence of deposition that occurs on the preboiler and boiler sides of the heat recovery system generator...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... the primary load carrier for interlaminar shear (i.e., shear between the layers) and transverse (90°) tension. The relative roles of the fiber and the matrix in detemining mechanical properties are summarized in Table 1.1 . Fig. 1.8 Lamina and laminate lay-ups Fig. 1.9 Comparison of tensile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The emphasis in this chapter, as well as in other chapters in this book, is on aqueous corrosion, or corrosion in environments where water is present. The chapter describes the classification of various forms of corrosion based on the nature of the corrodent, mechanism of corrosion, and appearance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This chapter provides a comprehensive overview over all phenomena related to Voltage Contrast (VC) mechanisms in SEM and FIB. The multiple advantages, possibilities, and limits of active and passive VC failure localization are systemized and discussed. The knowledge of all facts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... for cracking supported the plaintiff’s case ( Ref 2 ). 7.3 Cases of Sabotage Mechanical Sabotage Two cases involving deliberate damage of multi-strand steel cables are described next. A crane cable broke while lifting a load of concrete into a multi-storeyed hotel under construction, causing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses design and certification considerations, including materials and process selection, the building block approach to certification, design allowables, and design guidelines. It also includes information on damage tolerance and environmental sensitivity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... to expose their fracture surfaces for examination and study. These cracks may provide more information than the primary fracture. In opening cracks for examination, care must be exercised to prevent damage, primarily mechanical, to the surface of the fracture. This can usually be accomplished if opening...