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preheat temperature

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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 7 Typical “on-cooling” Gleeble curves of specimen reduction of area as a function of test and preheat temperatures with typical hot-workability ratings indicated More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...–1500) 775–800 (1425–1475) Rate of cooling, °C (°F) max per hour 22 (40) 22 (40) 14 (25) Typical annealed hardness, HB 156–201 183–229 192–229 Hardening Rate of heating Slowly Slowly Slowly Preheat temperature, °C (°F) (a) 650 (1200) 760 (1400) Hardening temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... the optimal preheat [1] temperature. This temperature, as indicated from the plot in Fig. 3 , lies between the peak-ductility (PDT) and zero-ductility (ZDT) temperatures. Fig. 3 Hypothetical “on-heating” Gleeble curve of specimen reduction of area as a function of test temperature To confirm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... for C ≤ 0.3% and %C* = %C/6 + 0.25 for %C > 0.3%. The critical time length in seconds, τ 8/5 , for the avoidance of martensitic transformation is given as: (Eq 9) log τ 8 / 5 = 2.69  CE* + 0.321 When this quantity is known, welding parameters and preheat temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... to the austenitizing temperature in one rapid step, both the thermal expansion stress and the phase change stress occur simultaneously in different areas of the workpiece, and with many types of tool steels, these combined stresses may cause cracking. The object of preheating is to induce these stresses one at a time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... composition and heat treatment. Carbon steels having low manganese and silicon contents (1.60% Mn, 1.00% Si), and a carbon content below 0.30%, can be welded without any special precautions. When the carbon content exceeds 0.30%, preheating of the casting prior to welding is advisable. The low-temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... the rate of cooling. This allows more time for hydrogen to diffuse away from the weld area during cooling within the austenite range and, especially, following transformation to martensite. Preheating is generally carried out in the temperature range from 200 to 300 °C (400 to 600 °F). In multipass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... welding procedure factors that affect weldment properties. Preheat Temperature Preheating is the application of heat to the base metal immediately before welding, brazing, soldering, or cutting ( Ref 12 ). The preheat temperature depends on many factors, such as the composition and mass of the base...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... weldments has been studied for over a half-century, the mechanism of cracking is still uncertain. Fortunately, judicious “hydrogen management” has permitted the crack-free welding of high-strength steels primarily by preheating the weld to a temperature that must be increased with increasing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... for the development of a microstructure model. Real-scale tests were run to compare the model prediction with reality. Three sets of experiments were used in the model development. 19.2.1 Preheating Tests Heat treatment studies were conducted with different temperatures and hold times to produce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
...-Carbon Steels Steels containing from 0.25 to 0.60% C and 0.25 to 1.65% Mn are classified as medium-carbon steels. Based on their base-metal mechanical properties, the electrodes in AWS specification A5.1 usually suffice in most applications. The use of preheat, interpass temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Preheat temperature Pressure A simplified Harris formula can be used as a rough guide for calculating the compound zone thickness: Compound  zone   thickness  = t × f where t is process time at temperature and f is factor by temperature. This formula assumes a full...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... processes is its carrier gas preheat temperatures in the range of 0 to 700 °C (32 to 1290 °F), a range that is generally lower than the melting temperature of the coating particle materials. The nozzle exit temperature is substantially lower than the gas preheat temperature, further lowering the temperature...
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 7 Preheating, austenitizing, and quenching tool steel with one-, two-, or three-step preheat before austenitizing. Quench in temperature; W, water; O, oil; or A, air More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... Abstract This appendix provides reference tables listing weldability of cast irons, steels, and nonferrous metals. A process selection table for arc welding carbon steels is included, and recommended preheat and interpass temperature tables are also presented. This appendix includes information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.9781627083591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Table 5-3 Hardening and tempering temperatures and procedures for tool steels Type Rate of healing Hardening Time at temperature, min Quenching medium( a ) Tempering temperature Preheat temperature Hardening temperature °C °F °C °F °C °F Molybdenum high-speed steels M1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... of the type 440 compositions are not readily available. Both preheating and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) are critical to successful welds. The usual preheating temperature range of martensitic steels is 200 to 300 °C (400 to 600 °F). The temperature varies according to the material composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... when residual phases are present. If the process temperature is higher than the tempering temperature, any residual phases could still be transformed. Omission of a stabilizing process prior to the nitriding procedure (cryogenic treatments) Preheat Treatment The steel must be preheated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of bainite. This microstructure is characterized by excellent strength and fracture toughness. At slow weld cooling rates associated with high preheating temperatures or heat input, the amount of acicular ferrite decreases substantially and is replaced by a coarse structure of additional grain-boundary...