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precipitation-strengthened superalloys

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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 30.5 Microstructure of a precipitation-strengthened nickel-base superalloy. Original magnification: 6000×. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...) and/or γ″-Ni 3 Nb precipitates form in the fcc γ matrix. The second is the low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) group of alloys discussed subsequently. The third group of nickel-iron-base superalloys is the modified stainless steels, primarily strengthened by solid-solution hardening and minor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... from solid-solution hardeners and precipitated phases. Principal strengthening precipitate phases are γ′ and γ″, which are found in iron-nickel- and nickel-base superalloys. Carbides may provide limited strengthening directly (e.g., through dispersion hardening) or, more commonly, indirectly (e.g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the metallurgical changes that occur and the improvements that can be achieved in superalloys through solid-solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion strengthening. It also explains how further improvements can be achieved through the control...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... additions, with elements such as aluminum, titanium, and chromium reducing the density and elements such as tungsten, rhenium, and tantalum increasing it. The main strengthening mechanisms for nickel and iron-nickel superalloys are solid-solution hardening and precipitation hardening. In addition, grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... morphology, but maximum stress-rupture strength is attained with a different morphology, most γ′-strengthened nickel-base superalloys have a bimodal γ′ morphology. The primary process that modifies precipitate morphology is heat treatment, which can occur deliberately in manufacture or inadvertently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Precipitation hardening is used extensively to strengthen aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel-base superalloys, beryllium-copper alloys, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This chapter discusses two types of particle strengthening: precipitation hardening, which takes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... contains 1.5% Hf. (b) MAR-M 200 + Hf also contains 1.5% Hf. Iron-Nickel-Base The most important class of iron-nickel-base superalloys includes those strengthened by intermetallic compound precipitation in an fcc matrix. The most common precipitate is γ′, typified by A-286, V-57, or Incoloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... for strengthening, because cobalt alloys are not precipitation hardenable. Chromium can also provide some solid-solution hardening in cobalt-base alloys. The refractory elements in all superalloy families provide solid-solution hardening to the γ matrix. Aluminum is added to form strengthening precipitates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Hardening Precipitation hardening is used extensively to strengthen aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel-base superalloys, beryllium-copper alloys, and precipitation-hardening (PH) stainless steels. Precipitation hardening is a three-step process in which the alloy is: Heated to a high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...-(aluminum + titanium) content alloys. The procedures used in welding superalloys depend, to some extent, on the mechanism by which they are strengthened for high-temperature service, that is, whether primarily solid-solution strengthening or primarily precipitation strengthening is employed. Concepts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
..., when Eiselstein introduced alloy 718, a superalloy strengthened by the γ″-Ni 3 Nb precipitate. The superalloy development from the 1930s to 1950s can be considered as being based on microstructure optimization. The next step in the history of superalloy development was characterized by process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... arising in alloy service at a later date. If a precipitation-hardened superalloy component is heated to a high temperature, particularly above about 1000 °F (540 °C), then it is being heat treated. Even solution-hardened alloys or carbide-strengthened alloys such as the cobalt-base superalloys can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... were obtained from a series of exposures at about 2100 °F (1149 °C). Fig. 14.3 Room-temperature tensile strength vs. exposure times at 1038 °C (1900 °F) in air for Hastelloy X nickel-base solid-solution and carbide-strengthened superalloy Extensive carbide precipitation frequently can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... precipitation in various locations but typically in grain boundaries, as noted in the text. Carbide reactions in nickel-base superalloys. Reactions vary with alloy composition. Table B.3 Carbide reactions in nickel-base superalloys. Reactions vary with alloy composition.  The principal carbide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...) Precipitation hardened. (d) Work strengthened and aged Effect of temperature on 1000 h stress-rupture strengths of selected wrought superalloys Table 2.2 Effect of temperature on 1000 h stress-rupture strengths of selected wrought superalloys Alloy Form Rupture strength at: 650 °C (1200...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... a much wider processing window than conventional γ′-hardened superalloys. The major strengthening phase in IN-718 is not γ′ but γ″. Both phases will dissolve upon heating to high temperatures. The stable precipitate phase in IN-718 is δ, another variant of Ni 3 Nb. Figure 6.15 shows a time-temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... in the grains. Little is known about any aspects of γ″ in grain-boundary regions. General Aspects of Precipitation Hardening in Superalloys Summary of Effects Strengthening by precipitate particles is related to many factors; the intrinsic strength and ductility of the precipitate are most important...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...) 12.7 57 2.15 3.7 16 4 4 0.7 … … 0.015 0.05 0.05 … … Strengthening mechanism (a) oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS), (b) precipitation hardened (PH). Source: Ref 1 – 16 Applications and comments to selected superalloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9