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precipitation hardening

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... involved in selection of tempering temperature. The chapter ends with a section discussing various effects, advantages, and disadvantages of precipitation hardening. austempering austenitizing martempering precipitation hardening quenching steel temper embrittlement tempering HARDENING OF...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... treatment of titanium alloys is analogous to that of other precipitation-hardening systems. For example, when heat treating for increased strength, the material is heated (solution treated) to dissolve much or all of the precipitated phase (in this case, alpha) and cooled (quenched) at a rate sufficiently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of precipitation hardening, an important strengthening mechanism in nonferrous alloys as well as stainless steel. It begins with a detailed review of the theory of precipitation hardening, then describes its application to aluminum alloys and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... elevated temperatures, such as 150 °C (300 °F), a series of transition phases form that strains the matrix and forms the basis for precipitation hardening, as discussed in Chapter 16, “Nonequilibrium Reactions—Precipitation Hardening,” in this book. The remainder of this section covers precipitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is essentially scrap. If the alloy contains coring, then a homogenizing temperature above T 3 will also cause “burning” of the alloy. A safer temperature is T 4 . During precipitation hardening, if the solutionizing temperature T 5 is chosen instead of T 6 , grain growth of α phase will...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...—Martensitic and Bainitic Structures;” and 16 “Nonequilibrium Reactions—Precipitation Hardening;” in this book, respectively). The material in this chapter came from Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys by F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2008 and from Elements of Physical Metallurgy by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Troiano A.R. , The Bainite Transformation , Met. Prog. , 1956 , Vol 70 ( No. 2 ), p 97 – 104 15.22 Pickering F.B. , The Structure and Properties of Bainite in Steels , Transformation and Hardenability in Steels , Climax Molybdenum Company of Michigan , Ann Arbor, MI , 1977 , p...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... phase, for example an embrittling phase, or promote a phase, for example a precipitation-hardening phase. By drawing these lines, the reader is able to focus on one phase at a time and ignore the lines that concern other phases. Although it is true that the lever rule cannot be used here, it can be...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... concerns in the development of nickel-base superalloys, such as γ′ solvus temperature, matrix (γ)/precipitate (γ′) misfit, and the formation of deleterious topologically close-packed (tcp) phases. In Example 3 , phase diagram calculation is applied to commercial titanium alloys. The β transus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., where the initial (parent) phase may be either a liquid or a crystalline solid. Solid-state invariant reactions are a category of heterogeneous phase transformations that involve moving reaction boundaries and phase separation. Invariant transformations differ from precipitation reactions in that all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... , 2nd ed. , PWS-Kent Publishing Co. , 1989 A.9 Epler M. , Structures by Precipitation from Solid Solution , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731 A.10 Guy A.G. , Elements of Physical Metallurgy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the metallurgical changes that occur and the improvements that can be achieved in superalloys through solid-solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion strengthening. It also explains how further improvements can be achieved through the control of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... the substantial amount of iron added ( Ref 1 ). There are three groups of nickel-iron-base superalloys. The first is the precipitation-hardened alloys, where γ′-Ni 3 (Al,Ti) and/or γ″-Ni 3 Nb precipitates form in the fcc γ matrix. The second is the low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) group...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... depleting carbide-forming elements ( Ref 7 ). Cobalt-base superalloys are primarily strengthened through carbide precipitation because they are not precipitation hardened by intermetallic compounds. In wrought cobalt-base alloys, where carbon contents are as high as 0.15 weight percent, carbides also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
.... Tensile strength of 2068 MPa (300 ksi) at low temperatures (SSH + work + PH); where SSH = solid-solution hardened, PH = precipitation hardened; service temperatures up to 400 °C (750 °F). Source: Ref 1 – 16 Table A.2A Selected cobalt cast superalloy compositions Composition wt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... hardness at high temperatures, carbide concentration, and ease of work hardening. They are classed as having poor machinability. For precipitation-hardened alloys, the part should be machined in the annealed condition where possible. For conventional machining, tungsten carbide tools are most commonly used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...-base alloys have the highest chromium contents due to their preferred use in applications susceptible to hot corrosion and the requirement to form M 23 C 6 and M 6 C carbides for strengthening, because cobalt alloys are not precipitation hardenable. Chromium can also provide some solid-solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... nickel-iron- and cobalt-base alloys were strengthened by carbide dispersions, although Nimonic 80 did exhibit some precipitation hardening due to the formation of a γ′-Ni 3 Al phase. In the late 1940s, molybdenum was introduced into alloy M-252, producing a significant amount of solid-solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... … Stellite 6B Sheet 1010 146 … … … … 635 92 … … … … 11 … … Haynes 150 … 925 134 … … … … 317 46 … … … … 8 … … (a) Cold-rolled and solution-annealed sheet, 1.2 to 1.6 mm (0.048 to 0.063 in.) thick. (b) Annealed. (c) Precipitation hardened. (d) Work...