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potential-pH diagram

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... energy and electrochemical potential, the effect of ionic concentration on electrode potential, and the corrosion behavior of a metal based on its potential-pH diagram. The corrosion (potential-pH) behavior of iron, gold, copper, zinc, aluminum, and titanium are described. Understanding the kinetics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of Potential/pH Diagrams , Electrochim. Acta , Vol 3 , 1961 , p 279 10.1016/0013-4686(61)85004-4 7.10 Han M.K. , Beavers J.A. , and Goins W. , Stress Corrosion Cracking Failure of Brass Electrical Connectors in an Outdoor Atmospheric Environment , Mater. Perform. , Vol 26 ( No. 7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to protect reinforcing steel in bridge decks, parking garages, and other large structural surfaces. The concept of anodic protection is related to a potential-pH diagram and to electrochemical polarization curves for an active-passive metal ( Fig. 15 ). In the potential-pH diagram, the starting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in a propagating crack generally differ from the bulk electrolyte. If the conditions at the tip of the growing pit or localized corrosion penetration cannot achieve the proper pH, potential, or chemistry, crack propagation may not proceed. Also, if the pit aspect ratio is not greater than a critical value...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of crack growth in aqueous solutions. These include, but are not limited to: Temperature Pressure Solute species Solute concentration and activity pH Electrochemical potential Solution viscosity Stirring or mixing Altering any of these parameters may affect the rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... are not conducive to the formation of the necessary protective oxide film on the metal surface. An introduction to metal corrosion should include a discussion about the thermodynamic nature of the metal. The easiest way to do this is to look at a potential-pH (also called Pourbaix) diagram of a metal ( Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... + ( a H + or pH , P H 2 ) |  on Pt RHE                It is important to define the solution phase with respect to variables establishing the half-cell potentials. The identified species will be ionic with ionic activities, for example, H + (a H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... oxygen gas is able to corrode iron in the entire pH range. Figures 4(a) and (b) are types of phase diagrams that show the stable phases in an area bounded by pH and potential. In reality, several electrochemical and chemical reactions need to be considered when constructing these types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of the curves with increasing pH: the passivating potential decreases, the critical current density decreases, and the current density in the passive state decreases. The decrease in the passivating potential is consistent with the Pourbaix diagram in that the oxide phases form at progressively lower potentials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and their electrochemical potential. In this regard, Pourbaix diagrams (pH-potential diagrams) show the forms of the metal that are thermodynamically stable over a range of pH and electrochemical potentials. Pourbaix diagrams usually can answer the question: “Under what conditions can corrosion of metals occur in aqueous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... solutions are shown in Table 2 . Viewing the electrochemical cell as an electrical circuit, Kirchoff’s law can be used to design a so-called polarization diagram. Consider, as a case study, a steel corroding under deaerated conditions, in a water solution, as shown in Fig. 2 . Assume that the pH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 1 ). Pourbaix diagrams show the forms of the metal that are thermodynamically stable over a range of pH and electrochemical potential. Models predicting the corrosion damage of metals exposed to atmosphere have been a recent addition to understanding corrosion in atmospheric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... by low pHs and lower potentials. Boric acid is a weaker acid and has a pH representative of mildly acidic solutions. Fig. 3 Approximate locations of several common environments on a potential-pH diagram. SHE, standard hydrogen electrode Atmospheric, seawater, and freshwater environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... predominantly responsible for protection is an adherent cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) layer. Another passive state can be obtained when the metal potential is shifted to more positive values, forming copper oxide (CuO)—as seen on the Pourbaix (potential-pH) diagrams of copper in water ( Fig. 13.2 ). Fig. 13.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of copper and copper alloys in environments known to contain certain sulfur species. The corrosion behavior of copper-base alloys can be better understood by examining the potential-pH diagram for copper presented in Fig. 7 . Copper is a relatively noble metal compared with iron. The immune region...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... for thermodynamic stability of the oxide film are expressed by the Pourbaix (potential versus pH) diagram shown in Fig. 2 . As shown by this diagram, aluminum is passive (is protected by its oxide film) in the pH range of about 4 to 8.5. The limits of this range, however, vary somewhat with temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Cu (II) Solutions , Corrosion , Vol 40 , 1984 , p 201 – 204 142. Johnson H.E. and Leja J. , On the Potential/pH Diagrams of the Cu-NH3-H2O and Zn-NH3-H2O Systems , J. of Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 112 , 1965 , p 638 – 641 10.1149/1.2423629 143. Pugh E.N...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... a greater number of hydrogen ions, and strongly alkaline solutions have a greater concentration of hydroxyl ions. Fig. 14 Range of acidity and alkalinity The pH defines the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH is defined as −log(H + ); an increase of one pH unit is equivalent...