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potential value

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... tendency for corrosion) Note: The excess of free energy is related to the standard electrode (metal) potential value. (Complete metal electrode potential values can be found in Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials , G. Milazzo and S. Caroli, Ed., Wiley-Interscience, 1977.) NHE, normal hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... for a metal (e.g., stainless steel) that displays an active-passive transition. At relatively low potential values, within the active region, the behavior is linear, as it is for normal metals. With increasing potential, the current density suddenly decreases to a very low value, which remains independent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... into a furnace at 1000 °C (1830 °F) with the endo composition set to the 0.95 carbon potential value. The steel would immediately start to carburize, the surface composition would increase to the 0.95% value, and carbon would start to diffuse into the 1018 bar. Figure 17.6 is a schematic diagram showing how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... couples or external power sources flow in such a direction as to shift the potential of the cathode to a value at which the corrosion reaction does not occur. Other descriptions of cathodic protection state that the currents result in the metal to be protected becoming a cathode over the entire metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or counter electrode, to make such measurements. As mentioned previously, current density is a measure of the rate of reaction. Common practice for measuring such curves involves potentiodynamic polarization or automatic scanning of the potential from a low value, such as the corrosion potential, to higher...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... influence the final electrode potential of the product. Tables 2 to 4 present representative solution potentials of commercial aluminum alloys. The corrosion potential values in these tables were measured against a 0.1 N calomel electrode in a solution containing 53 g/L of sodium chloride (NaCl) and 3 g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... + represents metal ions entering the crack solution from the crack walls, and M T + indicates metal ions entering the crack solution from the crack tip. Fig. 10 Potentiokinetic polarization curve and electrode potential values at which stress-corrosion cracking appears Fig. 11...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... that the conductivity values are simply the inverse of the resistivity; that is, to get conductivity, divide 1 by the value of the resistivity. Sodium chloride has a resistivity of 11.6 Ω · cm. This is a very low resistivity for a solution. It can be compared to the resistance of greater than 10 6 Ω for distilled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... propagation. However, this discussion focuses on the normal usage of the term as defined subsequently. One common misconception is that SCC is the result of stress concentration at corrosion-generated surface flaws (as quantified by the stress-intensity factor, K ); when a critical value of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... above the sample (e.g., 10 nm). In SPV mode, the two lasers are modulated in unison, both being on or off at the same time. This causes the surface potential of a semiconductor sample to change between dark and illuminated potential values. The difference between these two surface potential values...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... ′ H + ) (Eq 4.2) E ′ M = ( ϕ ′ M o − ϕ ′ M + ) − Δ ϕ SHE where primes indicate values at equilibrium, ϕ′ M o is the potential in the metal, ϕ′ M + is the potential in the solution near the metal surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., and ohmic polarization. The sum of all these resistance elements throughout the corrosion cell determines the resultant current for a given value of potential difference between the anode and cathode. Using electrochemical techniques, it is possible to control the potential at desired levels and to measure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... , M m + ′ = E M , M m + o . Hence, E M , M m + o is the half-cell potential at unit activity of the ions (i.e., the standard electrode half-cell potential). Values of the standard potentials of many electrode reactions are available...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... drops rapidly as the sintered density approaches values in the vicinity of 6.6 to 6.9 g/cm 3 . Effect of 316L sintered density on stepwise initiation potential, <italic>E</italic><sub>stp</sub> Table 9.3 Effect of 316L sintered density on stepwise initiation potential, E stp Compaction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... range is further illustrated in Fig. 8.2 , which gives results of weight loss measurements for alloy 3004-H14 specimens exposed in water and in salt solutions at various pH values. Fig. 8.1 Pourbaix diagram for aluminum with an Al 2 O 3 · 3H 2 O film at 25 °C (75 °F). Potential values...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... anodic). The measured potential values are not listed, because the results obtained by different investigators are not performed under any standardized conditions. Under equilibrium conditions, the total number of electrons produced (metal dissolution) must be equal to the number removed (hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... values for M, m, and ρ. This procedure assumes nonselective corrosion of the elemental constituents of the alloy. Fig. 6.13 Applied potential and resultant external current relative to the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method Fig. 6.21 Two-electrode method Fig. 6.12...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... to what is meant by carbon potential in carburizing atmospheres. It is, rather, the reaction constant for the dissociation of ammonia. Its control allows the formation of predictable case structures and depths for a range of steels, including some tool and stainless grades. Higher N p values produce...