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potential measurements

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for measurements of electrode potentials using an electrometer. (a) Circuit completed through a salt bridge between the reference electrode and the specimen electrolyte. (b) Circuit completed through the specimen electrolyte Fig. 6.1 The potentiostatic circuit Fig. 6.2 Schematic experimental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... polarization curve with the anodic polarization curve. (b) The resulting dependence of the corrosion current on fluid velocity Fig. 4.1 Schematic representation of measurements of potentials along a path from anode to cathode area on a corroding surface Fig. 4.2 Array of anodic and cathodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... potentials vary as a function of current density or charge transfer in a given area. The chapter explains how to measure and plot electrode potentials and currents and how to interpret the resulting polarization curves. It also discusses the effects of concentration gradients, explaining how they cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... This chapter provides a summary of the studies that have been conducted along with the findings. It discusses the effects of acute and chronic exposure, toxicity levels, potential sources and risks, treatment, and protective and preventive measures. beryllium alloys beryllium chronic beryllium diseases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of this chapter. Atmospheric Tests Electrochemical test methods primarily focus on the control and measurement of the fundamental properties of electrochemical reactions. The electrochemical potential is equivalent to the driving force for reactions, and it determines the reactions that can occur...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... series of metals and alloys is useful for predicting galvanic relationships. Such a series is an arrangement of metals and alloys according to their potentials as measured in a specific electrolyte. The galvanic series allows one to determine which metal or alloy in a galvanic couple is more active...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... range is further illustrated in Fig. 8.2 , which gives results of weight loss measurements for alloy 3004-H14 specimens exposed in water and in salt solutions at various pH values. Fig. 8.1 Pourbaix diagram for aluminum with an Al 2 O 3 · 3H 2 O film at 25 °C (75 °F). Potential values...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... −0.83 3004 −0.84 5050 −0.84 5052 −0.85 5154 −0.86 5454 −0.86 5056 −0.87 5456 −0.87 5182 −0.87 5083 −0.87 5086 −0.85 7072 −0.96 Note: Values are the same for all tempers of each alloy. (a) Potential versus standard calomel electrode measured...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... sandy soils or a mixture of sand and bedrock. There was inadequate CP in these locations, based on pipe-to-soil potential measurements or pH measurements of electrolytes found beneath disbonded coatings ( Ref 17 ). Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection is closely related to the high-pH cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... model element, the constant phase angle ( Ref 5 ). Electrochemical Noise (EN) In this technique, fluctuations in potential and current between freely corroding electrodes are measured. Because of the small scale of these fluctuations of interest (in many cases <1 μV and <1 nA), sensitive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
.... The electrochemical relationships that develop in the microstructure can best be demonstrated by corrosion potential measurements. Figure 4 shows the change in potential at the grain boundaries and grain centers of a high-purity Al-4Cu alloy as a function of time of aging. The data in Fig. 4 indicate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... electrode reactions (cathode and anode), and as such they are associated with Reaction 1 rather than a physical cell. The potential difference is referred to as the electromotive force (emf) of the cell. It is also referred to as the open circuit potential because it is the potential measured...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... corrosion predictions (e.g., potential measurements and polarization measurements) and specimen exposures, which can or cannot be electrochemically monitored (e.g., immersion tests and atmospheric tests). These test procedures are described in detail in Ref 21 to 26 . In addition, the following ASTM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in high-conductivity boiling water reactors (BWRs) ( Ref 6.6 ) and (b) as measured in slow-strain-rate tests at 3.7 × 10 −7 /s on preirradiated type 304 stainless steel in 288 °C (550 ° F) water ( Ref 6.8 ). The effect of corrosion potential via changes in dissolved oxygen is shown at a fluence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... electrode). Other criteria applied to the protection of steel include the following: Maintain a minimum negative shift of 300 mV (0.3 V) from the freely corroding potential Provide a minimum 100 mV shift on the polarization decay when cathodic protection is removed Measure protective cathodic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... associated with shifts from rural to urban environments make the idea of an unchanging native potential relatively unlikely. Measuring current flow onto a structure is difficult to determine and requires trained personnel. A simpler criterion was obviously more desirable. –850 mV Cu/CuSO<sub>4</sub>...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... solutions can be recognized in a potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagram ( Fig. 5.1 ). According to this scheme, when the pH is less than the depassivation pH, active corrosion of the alloy occurs. In the absence of other cathodic reactions, active corrosion results in the generation of hydrogen as the cathodic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Electrolytic corrosion of steel. Source: Ref 3 A simple corrosion cell is shown in Fig. 18.3 . The cell contains an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. If a voltmeter is connected to the circuit, a potential difference between the anode and cathode would be measured, indicating that a direct...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... agents. Thus wetting agents cannot be used indiscriminantly but must be carefully evaluated. While etch time can often be shortened by the use of a wetting agent, the reverse can also occur. A number of researchers have developed techniques to measure the solution potential of the local anodic...