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porous-type anodic oxide film

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and liquids can cause attack. It is encountered when particles in a liquid or gas impinge on a metal surface, causing the removal of protective surface films, such as protective oxide films or adherent corrosion products, thus exposing new reactive surfaces that are anodic to noneroded neighboring areas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... steel forms a protective oxide of Cr 2 O 3 , while aluminum forms a protective film of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ). Unfortunately, although steel also produces a surface film, the film is porous and does not adhere very well, so the corrosion continues. Controls for uniform corrosion are the relatively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... are of several different types. There are inorganic coatings, including claddings, and enhanced oxides, such as anodized films, Boehmite films, and conversion coatings. Each of these is discussed in more detail in the following paragraphs. Alclad Aluminum Alclad aluminum is a duplex product in which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Polymer Ta/liquid electrolyte Porous Ta anode Aluminum (Al) Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) Al/Conductive Polymer Al/Liquid Electrolyte Etched Al foils Ceramics BaTiO 3 , CaZrO 3 , etc. BME (base metal electrode Cu, Ni) PME (precious metal electrode, Ag, Pd) Layered structure Film Biaxially...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... 50 μm (2 mils) thick. Anodic coatings have a porous outer portion and a thin barrier layer adjacent to the metal interface. The porous outer portion of the coating consists of close-packed cells of oxide, predominantly hexagonal in shape, each of which contains a single pore ( Fig. 9 ). In order...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... through the metallic conductor and the electrolyte, and if the conductor were replaced by a voltmeter, a potential difference between the anode and the cathode could be measured. The anode would corrode. Chemically, this is an oxidation reaction. The formation of hydrated red iron rust by electrochemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... Relative Costs Hardcoat anodize is the most expensive type of anodize. It is generally twice the cost of H 2 SO 4 anodize and 50% more than CrO 3 anodize. Sealing of Anodized Coatings Because all of the anodic processes produce porous Al 2 O 3 coatings, it is often desirable to seal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the protective oxide film. Anodic corrosion inhibitors, such as chromates, can cause rapid pitting if present in concentrations below a minimum value that depends on the metal-environment combination, temperature, and other factors. Pitting also occurs at mechanical ruptures in protective organic coatings...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... frequently leads to failure. Localized corrosion can be related to the microstructure of a metal or alloy, the physical condition of the surface, or coupling of the metal to a dissimilar metal or to conducting surface films, usually oxides. These conditions are listed in an order generally observed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... notably stainless steels). Passivation is generally associated with oxidizing media. (Discussion on the oxidizing power of a solution follows.) It is important to realize that a passive film is unlike a coat of paint—though for many practical purposes it can appear to behave as such. This point...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... to do so in an industrial environment. Thus, an oxide is usually formed intentionally. This is accomplished by etching or anodization, most often in an acidic medium and less often in an alkaline medium. The resulting oxides are porous, tenaciously adherent to the metal, and in some instances...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... is the anode, and the reaction proceeds in the oxidation direction, or the direction that produces electrons. Using values of the standard electrode potentials and the Nernst equation ( Eq 1 ) to determine the effect of ionic concentration on electrode potentials, the electrode potentials for the reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., and their corrosion rate decreases to much lower values than those for carbon steel. This alternate wetting and drying cycle produces a protective oxide film on weathering steel, but it produces a more porous nonprotective oxide film on carbon steel. Repeated cycles of this type ultimately result in complete coverage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... be thermodynamically possible and that a protective film, such as an oxide or salt, must be thermodynamically stable. The first condition becomes a requirement because, without oxidation, crack advance by dissolution would not result. That a process is controlled by anodic dissolution does not a priori indicate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., but the improvement occurs only if the primer has low enough viscosity to penetrate the oxide. Chemically, the PAA film is amorphous Al 2 O 3 , with a layer of phosphate incorporated onto the surface. Fig. 8.6 Surface morphology of phosphoric acid anodize (PAA). Source: Ref 4 Although the CAA process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... Thermodynamics of SCC The thermodynamic conditions for anodically assisted SCC are that dissolution or oxidation of the metal and its dissolution in the electrolyte must be thermodynamically possible and that a protective film, such as an oxide or salt, must be thermodynamically stable. The first condition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of (a) ionization effects in aqueous solutions and the effects of even trace amounts of water in nonaqueous environments and (b) changes that occur in the characteristics of any film of corrosion products that may be present on the surface of the metal. Typical patterns of the types of corrodent-concentration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and moisture resistances are similar to those of polyamide-cured epoxies and abrasion resistance is usually excellent. Most common are acrylic polyol types that have excellent weatherability but lesser chemical and moisture resistance than the more expensive polyester polyol types. Apply in thin film 36 μm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... to greatly enhance wear resistance and corrosion protection of selected parts ( Ref 10.4 ). The natural aluminum oxide film that forms on the surface in air is thin and relatively easy to penetrate, providing a small amount of natural protection. The purpose of anodizing is to grow the anodic film under...