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polymer quenching

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., and it occurs at approximately 650 °C (1200 °F) for this oil. There is an excellent discussion of water, oil, and polymer quenchants in Ref 12.8 that shows how these cooling rate curves are widely used to characterize the quenching power of the various commercially available quenching oils and polymer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., the process may be split into the following three stages: (a) the vapor blanket stage, (b) the boiling stage, and (c) the convection stage. Figure 6.1 gives examples of the three stages of quenching. Fig. 6.1 Photo sequence of a hot steel rod being quenched in a 25% polyalkylene glycol polymer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... atmosphere or vacuum. Oil quenches tend to produce a higher degree of scale retention than do water or polymer quenches, and the higher the temperature of austenitization, the greater the amount of scale. Removal of scale and any resulting surface defects may be needed to produce the finished part. Some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... certain that there has been no deterioration. The five basic causes of contamination in water and polymer quench systems are: Solids contamination , comprising scale and metal particles that collect in the quench tank, should be removed on a continuous basis. Tramp fluid buildup can occur from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., with the hot pin then placed into the centers. The pin is rotated and quenched uniformly with a polymer quenchant. During quenching the gantry moves back to pick up the next hot pin and deposits the quenched pin on a ramp for acceptance into the tempering furnace. After leaving the tempering furnace, the pins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... austenitization and quenching in a 20 to 21% aqueous polymer quenchant solution. Chemical analysis confirmed that the steel used was compatible with AISI 4140. Metallographic examination in the unetched condition was performed on the steel near the crack, which is shown in Fig. 34 . No evidence of nonmetallic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... medium. Induction heat treating uses dunk immersion into a quench tank, spray quenches, or mass quenching. Most common quenching media include water, water-polymer solutions, and oil. When selecting a quenchant, in order to minimize the possibility of quench cracks and distortion, it is best to avoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., to more sophisticated quenching systems with tanks, heat exchangers, pumps, filters, and temperature regulation controls. In the past, dunk oil quenching and water-soluble oils were widely used. Today, although oil is still used for some applications, polymer quenches have widely replaced most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... soluble or insoluble at room temperature, which is the basic requirement for hardening by heat treatment. After solid solution has been attained, the alloy is cooled as quickly as possible to room temperature (most often by water or polymer quenching) to arrest the structure obtained by heating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... enough of the surface to get below the decarb Verify if decarb will be removed in a subsequent operation Carbon restore Quenching speed is too slow Lower temperature of water or polymer quenchant Lower concentration of polymer quenchant Increase impingement of change method of application...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... and cracking are likely in all but small parts of simple design. Water-soluble polymer quenchants are an option to provide cooling rates between those of water and oil to minimize thermal shock. During quenching, agitation is desirable because it ensures an even temperature distribution in the bath...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Volume des Polymères Amorphes , J. Polym. Sci. , Vol XXX , 1958 , p 131 10.1002/pol.1958.1203012111 37. Struik L.C.E. , Physical Aging in Amorphous Polymers and Other Materials , Elsevier , 1978 38. Petrie S.E.B. , Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Glassy Polymers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Oil P Yes D3 2.25 63/66 Oil P Yes A1 1 61/65 Oil … Yes S1 0.5 56/59 Oil … Yes Gray cast iron >50 P … No Ductile cast iron >50 P … No (a) nom: nominal. (b) P is polymer quench, with the concentration depending on the part geometry and hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... , p 91 – 157 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824 16. Totten G.E. , Dakins M.E. , and Jarvis L.M. , How H -Factors Can Be Used to Characterize Polymers , Heat Treat. , Dec 1989 , p 28 – 29 17. Ruffle T.W. and Byrnes E.R. , Quenching in Vacuum Furnaces , Heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... temperature ranges above room temperature, heaters are recommended to bring the tank up to temperature, with an over-temperature alarm or cutoff used to prevent high-temperature operation. The quench tank and piping must not react with the quenchant. Polymers are very hard on painted tanks. In steel tanks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... Ferry J.D. , Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers , 3rd ed. , John Wiley & Sons , 1980 3. McCrum N.G. , Read B.E. , and Williams G. , Anelastic and Dielectric Effects in Polymeric Solids , John Wiley & Sons , 1967 4. Lethersich W. , Br. J. Appl. Phys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the wear rate and use the excellent low-friction property of PTFE, this polymer has often been used with fillers to form composites. Polytetrafluoroethylene itself has also been used as filler for other polymeric systems, such as PE. Figure 13 gives the wear rate of PTFE and some of its composites when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... monotonically with carbon content up to approximately 0.7 wt%. At the higher levels of carbon, some of the softer austenitic phase remains stable after quenching, and the hatched area indicates hardness with retained austenite. Low-alloy steels have additional alloying from about 2 wt% up to levels just below...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... permanence. If the ultraviolet absorber is incompatible with the polymer, it will tend to bloom out of the polymer and be ineffective. Another approach to reducing the initiation rate is to add materials that quench excited states. This reduces the lifetime of the excited state, thus lowering the quantum...