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ply-drops

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in composite materials; they are generally categorized as voids that are due to volatiles (such as solvents, water) or voids that result from entrapped air. This chapter describes the analysis of various types of voids. It reviews techniques for analysis of voids at ply-drops, voids due to high fiber packing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of high stress gradients, such as around cut-outs and at ply and stiffener drop-offs. Improper definition or management of the stresses around discontinuities can cause premature failures. 11. Eliminate or reduce stress risers whenever possible. Composite (fiber-dominated) laminates are generally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... ply terminations within the part is shown in Fig. 7.1 . In this figure, the number of prepreg plies and ply terminations can easily be observed, as well as how the adjacent plies accommodate the ply-drops. Where both ply terminations are found, the area is free of voids, and the transition is smooth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... gradients. Because the previous thick laminate test (40 plies) showed almost no pressure drop at the tool surface, a 60-ply laminate was collated with miniature pressure transducers embedded at multiple locations within the laminate and the bleeder. Three tool-mounted transducers were also used to monitor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to their nonhomogeneous nature; that is, they are laminated structures containing multiple ply orientations with numerous ply drop-offs. In addition, it is important that technicians conducting NDI be trained and certified in the method they are using. C-scan units can be programmed to print out the changes in sound...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... are usually permitted but require an overlap of 0.5 to 1.0 in. (12.7 to 25.4 mm). The engineering drawing should also control the number of ply drop-offs at any one location in the lay-up. Resin film infusion (RFI) is a process originally developed by NASA and the Long Beach division of McDonnell-Douglas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... terminations (i.e., ply drops), carbon fiber plies having different thicknesses, different prepreg material combinations (glass fabric prepreg and carbon fiber prepreg), and the number of plies. Bright-field illumination, 5× objective Void analysis of composite specimens can be performed using low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
..., diameters, opening sizes, and interfaces with other structures; design features such as skirt attachments and skirt-to-pressure-vessel structural Y-joints, flanges, and polar fittings; the definitions of hoop and helical wind angles; and what constitutes a ply and a layer for both hoop and helical windings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...) A ¯ i j = Σ i − 1 k ( Q ¯ i j ) i ( z i − z i − 1 ) / B Here ( Z i − Z i –1 ) is the thickness of the i th ply, and B is the total thickness of the laminate. The bar denoting average has been dropped and the stresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... and reinstallation   100 cycles (b) — –8.3 Notes: RTD, room-temperature dry. Dash indicates no test. (a) Moisture content = 0.86%. (b) Less than 2% change. (c) Tensile loading. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 15 Progressive ply failure for a [0°/45°/90°/–45°] s laminate. Source: Ref 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Fig. 16.1 Material and structural coordinate systems Fig. 16.3 Shear stress state on 45° lamina Fig. 16.4 Plane stress conditions Fig. 16.2 Stress-strain notation Fig. 16.5 Coefficients of mutual influence as a function of ply angle Fig. 16-6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Fig. 1.12 Influence of ply angle on strength and modulus Fig. 1.13 Variation of composite modulus of a unidirectional 0° lamina as a function of fiber volume fraction Fig. 1.20 Fatigue properties of aerospace materials Fig. 1.22 Effects of temperature and moisture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... Properties Test Specimen Configuration Unidirectional Ply Properties Standard Pressure Bottles References References 8.1 Peters S.T. , in Reference Book for Composites Technology , Vol 2 , Lee S.M. , Ed., Technomic Publishing , 1989 , p 143 – 178 8.2 Foral R.F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the sample edge to the core ( Ref 22 , 23 ). This effect is more complex in oriented specimens, as discussed in the following section. Unbalanced forces may result in curvature in unbalanced cross-ply laminates or in coatings cured on metal substrates ( Ref 24 , 25 ). Thermal stresses and strains have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... the large shear stresses required by the considerably large mismatch of thermal expansion of the plies. Each ply is highly anisotropic in its bulk coefficient of thermal expansion. If, for example, the ply layup is alternated between 0 and 90°, the ply coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between plies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... and assembly costs; composites are adversely affected by both temperature and moisture; composites are weak in the out-of-plane direction, where the matrix carries the primary load; composites are susceptible to impact damage and delaminations, or ply separations can occur; and composites are more difficult...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... 2. The best bolted joint design can barely exceed half of the strength of unnotched laminates. 3. Laminate percentages for efficient load transfer: 0° = 30–50%; 45°/135° = 40–60% 90° = minimum of 10% >50% 0° results in in-plane shear failure and no load redistribution. 4. Maximize ply...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...) 480 Source: Ref 12.4 Mechanical and thermal ply properties Table 12.3 Mechanical and thermal ply properties Symbols are defined in Table 12.4 . Partial volumes: k f + k m + k V = 1 Ply density: P 1 = k fpf + k mpm Matrix volume ratio: k m = (1...