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ply thickness

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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 6.10 Transverse flow affects ply thickness. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 16.12 Variation of ply stresses and strains through the laminate thickness More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in manufacturing the part. Although this can be the case, and is most often used for modeling purposes, the manufacturing process/cure cycle adds another variable that dictates the final performance. While through-thickness uniformity is usually assumed, fiber volume variations, void content, ply orientation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... diagram for a pressure vessel is shown in Fig. 9.4 . Summing the running loads in the longitudinal direction, N φ , the following relationships are obtained. Fig. 9.4 Netting analysis free-body diagram For the purpose of this discussion, a typical ply thickness, T , for most applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... because (1) thick laminates usually drive thick tools that exhibit very slow heat-up rates and (2) thick laminate parts are often made in matched metal tools. In order to get the lay-up to fit within these tools, the plies, or ply packs, either have to be hot debulked if the material is a net resin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... The primary preheating methods used for press thermoforming are IR heater banks, convection ovens, and heated platen presses. In IR heating the heating time is typically short, in this case, one to two minutes, but temperature gradients can form within thick ply packs. Since the surface heats considerably...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of the plies are oriented in the zero-degree or 90-degree direction. An example is the four-ply thick zero-degree laminate [0°, 0°, 0°, 0°]. Note that this is the same as a single ply or lamina, only thicker, as a result of multiple layers. Angle-Ply Laminates In an angle-ply laminate, all of the plies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... Twisting improves the handleability and makes processes such as weaving easier, but the twist also reduces the strength properties. Band —The thickness or width of several rovings, yarns, or tows as it is applied to a mandrel or tool; a common term used in filament winding. Tape —A composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
.... The interlayer thickness and modulus, ply orientations, thickness of the ply layers, and the grouping of the plies affect the stress/strain levels at which microcracking occurs in fiber-rein-forced composites ( Ref 6 to 9 ). The residual stresses in a composite material act to preload the composite and can...
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 5.2 Composite cross section showing many of the different facets that are usually investigated using reflected-light bright-field illumination. Shown in the cross section are voids (dark areas), ply terminations (i.e., ply drops), carbon fiber plies having different thicknesses, different More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in the low-pressure areas. Likewise, tubular composite parts that have thick cross sections and high ply angles can cause large constraints during the compaction process that can resist even the highest applied pressures. Accordingly, these types of composites may contain more voids. This is often found...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...) A ¯ i j = Σ i − 1 k ( Q ¯ i j ) i ( z i − z i − 1 ) / B Here ( Z i − Z i –1 ) is the thickness of the i th ply, and B is the total thickness of the laminate. The bar denoting average has been dropped and the stresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... fiber wet-out, structural efficiency (minimize ply thickness), surface finish 12K tow 3K tow Fiber modulus (if carbon is selected) Cost stiffness, weight, brittleness Lowest-modulus carbon Highest-modulus carbon Fiber form (continuous vs. discontinuous) Cost, strength, stiffness, weight...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... of the same material with equal ply thickness by simply listing the ply orientations from the top of the laminate to the bottom. Thus, the notation [0°/90°/0°] uniquely defines a three-layer laminate. The angle denotes the orientation of the principal material axis, x 1 , within each ply. If a ply were...
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 7.9 Schematic showing the sectioning of a composite part on an angle through the thickness. This is done to elongate the fibers for easier determination of the ply angles. More
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 2.1 Coordinates defined for composite material sample preparation as related to sectioning and viewing planes. Sectioning through the composite thickness on an angle helps in determining ply orientations (i.e., fibers will become elongated). More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...° plies. Matrix cracking in a [0°/90°/±45°] s laminate is shown in Fig. 18 . More and more matrix cracks develop until they reach a steady-state or saturation level that is a function of ply thickness and material properties. The damage during this phase is relatively small and occurs during the first...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of manually collating the laminate in the flat condition and then using a vacuum bag to form it to the contour of the tool. If the laminate is thick, this process may have to be done in several steps to prevent wrinkling and buckling of the ply packs. Heat (<150 °F (65 °C)) can be used to soften the resin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... Method for Transverse Tensile Properties of Hoop-Wound Polymer-Matrix Composite Cylinders ASTM D 7291/D 7291M-07 Standard Test Method for Through-Thickness “Flatwise” Tensile Strength and Elastic Modulus of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Material Some ASTM standards for composite...