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ply analysis

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses some of the challenges associated with the analysis of composite structures. It begins with a review of lamina fundamentals and the stress-strain relationships in a single ply under various types of loads. It demonstrates the use of classical lamination theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... separations or terminations in the center of composite laminates are also found as part of the design or as a result of manufacturing problems. In either situation, the part requires analysis to observe how the adjacent plies are affected. Figure 7.2 shows an example of how prepreg ply terminations can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in composite materials; they are generally categorized as voids that are due to volatiles (such as solvents, water) or voids that result from entrapped air. This chapter describes the analysis of various types of voids. It reviews techniques for analysis of voids at ply-drops, voids due to high fiber packing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... in ultimate laminate failure when all plies have failed. Thus, the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the laminate may be significantly higher than the failure load of the first or subsequent plies. In the analysis, the stiffness matrix for the laminate must be modified after each ply failure to reflect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... diagram for a pressure vessel is shown in Fig. 9.4 . Summing the running loads in the longitudinal direction, N φ , the following relationships are obtained. Fig. 9.4 Netting analysis free-body diagram For the purpose of this discussion, a typical ply thickness, T , for most applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in composites for analysis, the number should be determined separately in each axis and consist of those microcracks only going through the tow cross-sectional area. The microcracking may also be analyzed throughout the thickness of the composite, but this is usually limited to only one ply group, unless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... with a single ply or a lay-up in which all of the layers or plies are stacked in the same orientation, the lay-up is defined as a lamina, while when the plies are stacked at various angles, the lay-up is called a laminate. Continuous-fiber composites are normally laminated materials ( Fig. 3 ) in which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... methods are employed to consolidate thermoplastic composites. Flat sheet stock can be preconsolidated for subsequent forming in a platen press. Two press processes are shown in Fig. 6.2 . In the platen press method, precollated ply packs are preheated in an oven and then rapidly shuttled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... analysis codes and finite element modeling tools are available for detailed composite designs. Modern design is done on workstations with advanced computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) packages. Integrated product definition teams have more freedom with composite construction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
...), to predict burst pressures of symmetric and nonsymmetric four-layer laminates. The tubular test specimens were closed end. They found that the optimum winding angle for internal pressure was ±55°, and that closed-form analysis gave a much better match to the test results than FEM, which used a first-ply...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...-dependent. Advanced composites, whether of the polymeric-matrix class or the metal-matrix class, often are utilized in the form of a laminate. The lamina, or unidirectionally reinforced ply ( Fig. 1 ), is the basic building block of the laminate. In order to perform engineering analysis, the heterogeneous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... because (1) thick laminates usually drive thick tools that exhibit very slow heat-up rates and (2) thick laminate parts are often made in matched metal tools. In order to get the lay-up to fit within these tools, the plies, or ply packs, either have to be hot debulked if the material is a net resin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... illumination, 5× objective. 4 × 5 in. 14-picture (Polaroid) micrograph montage Fig. 5.2 Composite cross section showing many of the different facets that are usually investigated using reflected-light bright-field illumination. Shown in the cross section are voids (dark areas), ply terminations (i.e...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... the interlayer region to the ply interfaces. These cracks were constrained by the fibers in the adjacent plies. The fracture path propagated intermittently from one interface to the next in the interply region. The use of epi-fluorescence for analysis of the damage of a brittle-matrix composite after impact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of an isotropic material shown in Fig. 1.4 . If the material is loaded along its 0°, 45°, and 90° directions, the modulus of elasticity ( E ) is the same in each direction ( E 0° = E 45° = E 90° ). However, if the material is anisotropic (for example, the composite ply shown in Fig. 1.5 ), it has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to develop sufficient joint strengths, which lowers the basic laminate strength from a more highly orthotropic (0° dominated) laminate orientation. This chapter discusses mechanically fastened joints and adhesively bonded joints. Like the Chapter 16, “Structural Analysis,” this chapter is primarily...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... off with an acetone-dampened cloth. Dark-field illumination, 65 mm macrophotograph. (c) Polished cross section of the facesheet showing the dye in the microcracks throughout each ply from the surface to the core side. Dark-field illumination, 65 mm macrophotograph. Fig. 13.7 Micrograph...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...) 480 Source: Ref 12.4 Mechanical and thermal ply properties Table 12.3 Mechanical and thermal ply properties Symbols are defined in Table 12.4 . Partial volumes: k f + k m + k V = 1 Ply density: P 1 = k fpf + k mpm Matrix volume ratio: k m = (1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and integrally cocured structure are covered in Chapter 9, “Sandwich and Integrally Cocured Structure.” In addition, some of the design and analysis considerations for adhesively bonded joints are discussed in Chapter 17, “Structural Joints—Bolted and Bonded.” Adhesive bonding can also be used to join...