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plastic flow

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... It then explains how to determine the onset of yielding, which corresponds to the start of plastic deformation and the flow of metal within the workpiece. The chapter then goes on to present two important yield criteria, one based on shear stress (Tresca criterion), the other on distortion energy (von Mises...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... 1 , J 2 , and J 3 are the deviatoric stress invariants. Among the invariants, the second invariant, J 2 , is widely used in theory of plasticity to describe yielding of the material. 5.5 Isotropic Yield Criteria (Flow Criteria) Yield criteria define the condition for the limit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... the development and use of forming limit curves and the extensive amount of information they provide. anisotropy flow stress formability forming limit curves plastic deformation sheet forming tensile test WHEN A MATERIAL is deformed, two types of deformation occur: elastic and plastic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... is proportional to strain is incorrect due to plastic flow, causing considerable discrepancy between measured and calculated stresses. Data plots of the axial and bending fatigue characteristics of a 4130 steel help illustrate the problem. A closed-form solution is then presented and used to analyze the effects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... hydrogen degradation in specific ferrous and nonferrous alloys. The preeminent theories for hydrogen damage are based on pressure, surface adsorption, decohesion, enhanced plastic flow, hydrogen attack, and hydride formation. The specific alloys covered are iron-base, nickel, aluminum, copper, titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the role of plastic deformation in forging and the effect of strain and strain rate on metal flow. It demonstrates the use of stress tensors and shows how metal flow can be represented qualitatively by the displacement of volume elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... of the crystallographic orientation within grains. However, such changes do not qualify as the “recrystallization” from amorphous material that was erroneously ascribed earlier to fatigue failures. Cyclic plastic flow may also cause other subtle crystalline changes, for example, in transformations from one crystalline...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... for predicting plastic part performance (stiffness, strength/impact, creep/stress relaxation, and fatigue) integrated with manufacturing concerns (flow length and cycle time) are demonstrated for design and material selection. plastics material selection materials design plastic parts stiffness impact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the basic differences between direct and indirect extrusion, the application of plastic theory, the significance of strain and strain rate, friction, and pressure, and factors such as alloy flow stress and extrusion ratio, which influence the quality...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... forging Cracking —occurs when the imposed equivalent plastic strain exceeds the material capability at the temperature of operation—surface (hot tears), cooling (centerline cracking) Product underfill —underachieved thickness goal, inadequate material displacements, poor 3-D flow, inability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... region. The presence of this discontinuity is inherently necessary to cause the plastic flow that initiates or propagates the fatigue crack. In the low-cycle region, on the other hand, the plastic flow is imposed globally, whether or not there are geometric strain concentrations. This distinction takes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... to its original value, while that of the ductile failure is reduced. This reduction in diameter by plastic flow near the fracture surface is referred to as necking, and it develops in ductile metals just before fracture. (In addition to percent elongation, ductility is often characterized by percent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... 871 1600 0.2 0.87 0.21 1.08 1234 179 214 871 1600 0.2 0.43 0.01 0.44 616 89 17,731 Flow and failure constants for total strain version of strain-range partitioning characterization of nickel-base superalloy B-1900+Hf out-of-phase bithermal results 483 ⇔ 871 °C (900 ⇔ 1600 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...   for   unnotched   specimen If the NSR is less than 1, the material is considered to be notch brittle. As strength, hardness, or some metallurgical variable restricting plastic flow increases, the metal at the root of the notch is less able to deform, and fracture becomes more likely. Notch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... curve of a material. (a) Uniform gage length. (b) Hourglass configuration Fig. A.41 Common types of tensile stress-strain curves showing early regions of plastic flow. (a) Upper and lower yield point. (b) Gradual yielding and strain hardening Fig. A.45 Necking in limited region...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... total strain, for example, e = 0.005. On the other hand, some metals, particularly annealed low-carbon steel, show a localized heterogeneous type of transition from elastic to plastic deformation that produces a definite yield point in the stress-strain curve. Rather than having a flow curve...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... nitrogen, and tensile tested at various strain rates at room temperature and subzero temperatures. Figure 18.2 shows the data Leslie and Sober obtained for as-quenched 4330 steel. Flow stresses at plastic strains of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0% are shown, and the increasing flow stresses with strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of ductile fracture by deformation and brittle fracture are influenced by structure, loading conditions, and temperature. Deformation occurs by viscoplastic flow processes in noncrystalline material such as thermoplastic polymers. Thermoset plastics are brittle. Viscoplastic deformation depends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... permission of Metals and Ceramics Information Center The shape and orientation of the open-ended dimples depend on the loading conditions leading to fracture and thus on the state of stress and plastic flow at the crack tip. These are described by Beachem ( Ref 3 ) and illustrated in Fig. 4.9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... deformation that results in changes in shape within a part. If such stresses cannot be relieved by plastic flow, residual stresses may be incorporated into a part, as described subsequently. Shape distortion, and residual stresses, are enhanced by non-uniform quenching, high rates of quenching, large section...