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pitting corrosion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., including general corrosion, under-deposit corrosion, microbially induced corrosion, flow-accelerated corrosion, stress-assisted corrosion, erosion-corrosion, cavitation, oxygen pitting, stress-corrosion cracking, and caustic embrittlement. The discussion is supported by several illustrations and relevant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter concentrates on the better-known and widely studied phenomenon of pitting corrosion of passive metals. The discussion focuses on different parameters that influence pitting corrosion, namely environment, metal composition, potential, temperature, surface condition, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the effects of metallurgical variables on the corrosion of aluminum alloys. Emphasis is placed on the effect of constituent particles on pitting corrosion of aluminum. corrosion aluminum alloys aluminum THE METALLURGICAL EFFECTS on corrosion of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... alloys. Some categories of corrosion covered are pitting, crevice, intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking, general, and high-temperature corrosion. stainless steels nickel alloys corrosion resistance alloying elements pitting corrosion crevice corrosion intergranular corrosion stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-walled aluminum food containers, however, are coated to resist perforation ( Ref 1 ). Corrosion resistance of a material must be defined in terms of the use of the material. For example, a pinhole perforation in a thin-walled food or beverage container is a corrosion failure, whereas pits of the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-6.5Ni-3.0Mo, are now being produced with low carbon and a nitrogen addition. These alloys are useful because of their good resistance to chloride SCC, pitting corrosion, and intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition. The distribution of austenite and ferrite in the weld and HAZ is known to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... this form of corrosion, it is also the localized state of the environment that causes the accelerated attack of materials. Thus the propagation of pits on passive metal surfaces, the aggressive attack where two metals overlap to form a crevice, and the distinctive filiform attack on metal surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... food by the acid-producing bacteria, ultimately leading to accelerated corrosion of the underlying metal. Organic acids produced by fungi were identified as the cause of pitting failures in painted carbon steel holds on a bulk carrier and aluminum fuel storage tanks ( Ref 5 ). Bacterial action on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... principal environmental agents that accelerates corrosion and, in particular, pitting attack. Chlorides do damage by penetrating and destroying the normally protective and passive layer of oxides and hydroxides formed under natural conditions. Such protective surface films on metals exposed to atmospheres...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... level or the type of chemical used. Typically, pipeline systems are treated for management of general corrosion, although most failures actually result from localized (pitting) corrosion. Corrosion measurement and assessment in unpiggable pipelines presently relies on internal corrosion direct...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... out by Brown ( Ref 1 ) and has gained general acceptance ( Ref 2 ) due to the striking similarities in the chemical composition and behavior of occluded regions such as crevices, pits, cracks, and exfoliation sites. Thus, one can consider a crevice as a generic occluded system. Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... contaminated with oxygen, CO 2 , and/or H 2 S, and some can become thermally unstable and liberate corrosive species in situ. Particularly damaging in these situations is the fact that corrosion is likely to be localized leading to pitting, local area attack, crevice corrosion, and/or stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of Fracture ” and the “ Atlas of Fractographs ” in Fractography , Volume 12 of ASM Handbook , formerly 9th Edition Metals Handbook . Although the features causing SCC initiation, such as pits, fabrication defects, and intergranular corrosion, are observed and identified easily, there...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... The relative resistance of a stainless steel to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion can be related to an alloy composition by an empirical formula called the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN). Over the years, various PREN expressions have been presented ( Ref 43 – 47 ), but the most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... assembly ( Fig. 3 ). Less obvious examples of galvanic corrosion occur when ion transfer results in the deposition of active and noncompatible deposits on a metal surface. For example, an aluminum stirrer plate used in water was extensively pitted because a copper heater coil ( Fig. 7e) heated the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... experienced localized pitting corrosion even before the anticipated service ( Fig. 1 ). The damage occurred during storage, because the new (replacement) stainless steel pipe sections were in direct contact with mists of brackish water that arose in an unsheltered location immediately adjacent to a marine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Photograph of inside surface of a pipe showing 38 mm (1.5 in.) stress-corrosion crack (A) next to and parallel to a circumferential weld. Also shown are shallow corrosion pits (B). Source: Ref 10 Brinell hardness values, obtained by conversion of Knoop microhardness readings, were 133 to 160 (pipe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... alloy additions to be considered corrosion resistant and undergo a variety of corrosion failure modes/mechanisms in underground environments, including general corrosion, pitting corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The terms general corrosion and pitting corrosion are used rather loosely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., may suffer two main types of corrosion: uniform corrosion and localized corrosion. Uniform corrosion may happen under reducing conditions in the active region of potentials and also under oxidizing conditions in the form of a slow, passive corrosion. Localized corrosion, such as pitting and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... access to online data from which they can gage their relative impact on corrosion. To accomplish the aforementioned paradigm shift in corrosion technology, plant engineers are using new real-time, online measurement technologies (e.g., monitoring of electrochemical corrosion and pitting, advanced...