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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., case crushing, pitting corrosion, and partial melting are also provided. carburized components carbonitrided components hardenability residual stress dimensional stability quenching cracks grinding cracks micropitting macropitting case crushing pitting corrosion partial melting carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... property and performance data. It also discusses the effect of various alloying elements on pitting, crevice corrosion, sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and oxidation resistance. austenitic stainless steel duplex stainless steel ferritic stainless steel martensitic stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter explores the behavior of stainless steel in media that promote corrosion. The forms of corrosion covered are uniform corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, localized corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and grain boundary corrosion. The chapter discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter provides information on the structure, design aspects, mechanical properties, forming, machining, and corrosion resistance characteristics of duplex stainless steels. The different types of corrosion covered are general corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... sufficiently aggressive to break down the film, then active corrosion ensues. If this is highly localized because of a local weakness in the passive film, then pitting occurs. Such a pit may be unstable and repassivate, or it may grow without limit. Other halides have the same effect, but they are less...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... proportional to several key alloying elements: chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen. They contribute according to the following formula: (Eq 1) PREN = % Cr + 3.3 ( % Mo ) + 16 ( % N ) PREN stands for pitting resistance equivalent number . This number can be related to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... 316 stainless steel has passed from consideration as a material for handling brackish water or seawater. In distillation systems, the rule of thumb is that 2205 alloy (UNS S32205), with its pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of 35, is sufficient for seawater up to 20 °C (70 °F); alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... 40-46 S32803 2803Mo 33-41 S32900 329 26-35 S32906 2906 36-45 S32950 7-Mo Plus 32-43 S32977 AF 918 39-46 S39274 DP3W 39-47 Note: See Appendix 1 for alloy compositions. (a) PREN, pitting resistance equivalent number. Source: Adapted from NACE MR0175, “Sulfide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... applied loading direction Ratchet marks where origins join General wastage, roughening, pitting, or trenching Stress-corrosion and hydrogen damage may create multiple cracks that appear brittle Gouging, abrasion, polishing, or erosion Galling or storing in direction of motion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... that result from the higher sulfur levels decrease pitting resistance. This decrease in corrosion resistance can only be eliminated by a long anneal. Unfortunately, the pipe purchaser cannot know if the pipe has had a sufficient anneal. In-line induction annealing is insufficient for this purpose...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... sauce, which can have 15% salt, must withstand prolonged contact at 45 °C (115 °F). Under such conditions, 316 stainless pits in about 1 day, while higher alloy grades, the 6Mo alloys, of which their YUS 270 is one (equivalent to UNS S31254), are projected to last 20 years before pitting. This is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... no nitrogen in solution, so the resistance to pitting is given by: (Eq 1) PREN = % Cr + 3.3 % Mo In the martensitic PH alloys, no chromium is rendered ineffective by the formation of Cr 23 C 6 since carbon is either held low or stabilized by titanium or niobium. Thus, the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is the chemical dissolution of the oxide scale. The acids commonly used are nitric (HNO 3 ), hydrofluoric (HF), and sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ). HCL, which is commonly used to pickle carbon steel, is not recommended for stainless because it locally attacks (i.e., pits) the surface. HNO 3 is an oxidizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... industry has changed from a fairly complicated analysis of which austenitic steel to use while guarding against stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion and when to use clad materials for cost savings, to a fairly simple discussion of which duplex stainless steel is most economical for a given piece...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
..., except for occasional meteorites, is tied up in compound form. Therefore, its discovery was fortuitous; humans built fires with wood, placed stones within the fire pits to maintain heat, and learned that iron was reduced from these iron-rich stones. This type of iron was not melted but was instead formed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2