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pipe steel

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... (t/4 position). (b) and (d) mid-thickness (t/2 position). Ferrite (ferritic grain size ASTM 11) and fine pearlite. Some banding. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal Tubarão, ES, Brazil. Fig. 14.11 Dual-phase API X100 steel for piping produced through controlled rolling. C = 0.06%, Mn = 1.96%, Nb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Corrosion accidents due to external corrosion, % 64.9 36.0 84.6 Corrosion accidents due to internal corrosion, % 33.6 63.2 3.8 Corrosion accidents cause not specified, % 1.5 0.9 11.5 Source: Ref 6 Chemical and tensile requirements of common long seam welded line pipe steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes how ultrasonic testing came to be a viable method for evaluating intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in large-diameter stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor service. Intergranular SCC can be difficult to detect using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of steel. It explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... • Water + hydrogen sulfide + light hydrocarbons • Zinc chloride • • Zinc fluorosilicate • Fig. 18.8 Hydrogen cyanide cracking in a schedule 80 ASTM A53 black pipe steel drain line. (a) Primary crack penetration has advanced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure of stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor (BWR) service. It explains where most of the failures have occurred and provides relevant details about the materials of construction, fabrication...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses various factors pertinent to the prevention of corrosion in alloys for petroleum applications and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... also occurs when most metals are exposed to highly acidic conditions ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 Two views of deep pits in a type 316 stainless steel centrifuge head due to exposure to CaCl 2 solution Fig. 5 (a) Pitting of a carbon steel pipe exposed to a strong mineral acid. (b) Close-up view...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... in an actual continuous digester weld. 40× Fig. 12 Yield strength profile at 288 °C (550 °F) across a 660 mm (26 in.) diam type 304 stainless steel pipe weldment. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 2 Sulfide stress cracking of a hard weld of a carbon steel vessel in sour water service. BHN, Brinell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... of the reticulated grooves on the interior of the pipe Fig. 17 Graville diagram showing susceptibility of steels to hydrogen-induced cold cracking relative to carbon content and carbon equivalent (CE), where CE = %C + (%Mn + %Si)/6 (%Ni + %Cu)/15 + (%Cr + %Mo + %V)/5. Susceptibility to cold cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... are often overlooked during the selection process. For example, plain carbon steel may be the optimal choice for vessels and piping that must contain noncorrosive hydrocarbon gases, such as ethylene, under pressure at normal temperatures. However, the cooling effect that occurs during venting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... showing intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (A) and initiation sites for pitting (B) on the inside surface of a pipe. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 1 Preferential corrosion in the heat affected zone of a carbon steel weldment after service in an aqueous environment. 5×. Source: Ref 3 Abstract...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... of iron and steel water-related installations. Pitting may result in the perforation of water pipe, rendering it unserviceable, even though less than 5% of the total metal has been lost through rusting. Where confinement of water is not a factor, pitting causes structural failure from localized weakening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... of the weld. Courtesy of MEICharlton, Inc. Fig. 4 Overview of pipe end. Ratchet marks and beach marks are clearly visible. Courtesy of MEI-Charlton, Inc. Abstract Abstract Failure analysis of steel welds may be divided into three categories. They include failures due to design deficiencies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... ), Tempaloy F9 ( Ref 17 ), EM12 ( Ref 18 ), and T91 ( Ref 19 ) [1] , are modified 9Cr steels whose strength is achieved by precipitation strengthening due to vanadium and niobium additions. Steels containing 12% Cr, such as HT9 ( Ref 25 ), have been widely used in Europe for boiler tube and pipe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... mechanics and presents a number of cases in which life assessments are made based on the integration of several methods. boiler tubes Cr-Mo steel crack initiation life assessment metallography steam pipes General Description The function of a boiler is to convert water into superheated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... are nondestructively inspected by the manufacturer at the mill. The many uses to which steel tubular products have been applied form a basis for classifying steel tubular products; for example, the terms used for the first classification casing , tube , and pipe are assigned on the basis of usage, as in water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and pressures. Among the many metals and alloys that are available, relatively few are used for the construction of process equipment and piping ( Ref 1 ) due to the adverse influence on cost. However, materials used in process units include a wide variety of alloys, including carbon steel, cast irons, low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... a particular concern. Additionally, SCC can occur in stainless steel topside piping and equipment, if not properly selected for this harsh environment. Another unique aspect of oil and gas production operations, particularly in older fields, is the almost exclusive use of carbon and low-alloy steels. More...