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Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 6.18 Example of friction stir welding pin tool. Source: Ref 6.10 , p 17 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... into various types of tools and track pins manufactured for off-highway equipment. camshaft lobes gears induction surface hardening shafts through hardening SINCE ITS INTRODUCTION in the 1930s, induction heat treatment has been applied to a large variety of mass-produced commercial products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This chapter reviews the fundamentals of stress, strain, and deformation and demonstrates some of the tools and techniques used to analyze how materials and structures respond to tension, compression, bending, and shear. It begins with an overview of the behavior of perfectly elastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract The results of certain heat treating processes must be verified for case quality and case depth by destructively sectioning a part or parts that were subjected to the process. Test coupons or test pins are often used for diffusion processes such as carburizing, carbonitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... part ( Ref 13.1 ). In some cases a custom-built cushion system in the tooling provides the necessary force for the blank holder. Presses used for deep drawing could be either single action or double action (in some cases triple action) and have either mechanical or hydraulic drives. Accordingly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... with a self-locking or swaged-on collar that cannot be removed with typical tools without destroying the collar or pin. Pin and collar fasteners are high-strength fasteners made from either Ti-6Al-4V, A286 iron-nickel, or Inconel 718. Typical head designs include the protruding tension head, protruding shear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... for subsequent fault isolation work. For the more recent CSPs in WLCSP (Wafer Level CSP) form, handling of these bare-die-like devices creates new difficulties for the failure analysts in performing routine failure analysis work using conventional FA tools. These are just a few examples of challenges that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... images. Besides mapping scan chains, more importantly, this phenomenon can be extended to devise a fast approach to validate the accuracy of software-based scan diagnosis. In brief, scan diagnosis is a tool that simulates design information and tester failing pins/cycles data collectively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., the design variables were individual pin forces, and the number of design variables for the liftgate-inner tooling was 15, due to symmetric conditions. Output The finite-element results in Fig. 3.10 show that the forces at pins 2, 3, and 4 were in the range of 45 to 50 kN (10 to 11 kip) to allow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to supply parts within the lead time requirement of customer); price issues (parts available at lower prices from independent distributors and brokers); absence of pedigree verification tools in the electronics part supply chain; availability of cheap tools and parts to create counterfeits; and costly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... solution. However, lubricant and even workpiece material may extrude into the space between pin and die; differences in stiffness between tool and pin may cause the pin to protrude and give erroneously high readings; and friction between the pin and hole surfaces can introduce substantial errors (an error...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The several specific grades or compositions of tool steels have evolved over time and have been organized into useful groupings. This chapter presents the AISI classification system for tool steels, which categorizes tool steels by their alloying, applications, or heat treatment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... pressure supplied by an air cushion. air-hardening steel An alloy steel that will be hardened by cooling in still air from a tem- perature above its critical temperature range. Also called self-hardening steel. air pin See pressure pin. air spring See pneumatic spring. alloy A substance that has metallic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... or contracts at a faster rate than the part. Several potential problem areas are illustrated in Fig. 4.6 . For a tooling material with a large CTE such as aluminum, the tool can actually bind the part, causing ply cracking or delaminations. For skins and other parts, Teflon shear pins are often used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... analyzed a knockout pin insert that was used to indent a hole on the bottom of a workpiece in a cold heading operation. The insert and original pin design are shown in Fig. 22.18 along with the point of failure. The original insert had an average tool life of 53,000 parts [ Hannan et al., 2001...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract This chapter covers the friction and wear behaviors of carbon, alloy, and tool steels. It begins a review of commercially available shapes and forms. It then describes the metallurgy and microstructure of various designations and grades of each type of steel and explains how it affects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... with the same surface (which is not the case in sheet metal forming), some modified tests ( Fig. 16.21b ) were introduced where the tool material is in contact with fresh sheet material throughout the test ( Ref 16.63 ). Fig. 16.21 Scratching tests. (a) Pin-on-disk test. (b) Slider-on-sheet test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., engine blocks (semi-permanent mold) and cylinder heads (core assemblies), machine tools, and a variety of furniture components. Over 90% of styled automotive wheels are produced by the low-pressure permanent mold process (LPPM). The process capability for casting thicknesses is very versatile...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...-on collar that cannot be removed with typical tools without destroying the collar or pin. Lock bolts are a common pin and collar fastener that can be installed by either pulling or swaging the collar from the backside. A typical pull-type lock bolt installation sequence is shown in Fig. 8.14 . Lock bolts...