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pig iron

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... in converting pig iron into cast iron and steel. cast iron manufacturing pig iron steelmaking THIS CHAPTER PROVIDES a brief overview of iron and steel manufacturing and the major equipment involved in the process as well as identifying where the castings specified in this book fit into the overall...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 2.2 The iron blast furnace process. Left: typical mass balance for the production of 1 mol of iron contained in the tapped pig iron. Right: physical arrangement of the process. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... point of the iron. The molten iron dissolved carbon and other impurities, which was not the case in the production of sponge and wrought iron. The product from the furnaces that melted the iron was called pig iron. Typical pig iron compositions are given in Table 4.3 . The raw material used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in a crucible (for a detailed description, see Ref 4 ). The highly reducing conditions prevailing inside the furnace are such that a large part of the phosphorus in the iron ore and the sulfur from the coke and coals is incorporated in the liquid metal, pig iron. Several other impurities are collected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., resembling pigs, thus giving the product the name pig iron . The high-carbon content of cast iron lowered the melting temperatures of iron and made it readily liquid and castable. High graphite or carbide contents in solidified microstructures, together with high silicon and phosphorous contents, made cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... production evolved over the millennia. One was based on smelted iron, which contained too little carbon and required subsequent carburization, while the other was based on the production of pig or cast iron, which contained too much carbon and required its subsequent removal. The earliest example...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Amount typically observed (a) , % Effects (b) Carbon (c) Pig irons, cast scrap, coke, and intentional addition 2.0–3.0 Lower levels of carbon are difficult to anneal, have strong white iron tendency, and have low fluidity. Higher levels are easier to anneal, have better fluidity, but show...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in which hot air was blown through molten pig iron to reduce the carbon and silicon contents. In 1858, Siemens first successfully operated an open-hearth furnace in which liquid pig iron and scrap were melted with a hot gas flame. The key factor in both the Bessemer and Siemens processes was the oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... … … Yes Yes High-alloy steels … … Yes Can use, but induction furnace preferred 14.4.1 Gray Iron Melts The acid-lined cupola offers the least capital cost option for gray iron but requires a charge to include pig iron. The (coreless) induction furnace is more capital intensive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... such as clutch plates and brake drums, where resistance to heat checking is important, low-strength grades of iron are the superior performers. Similarly, in heat shock applications such as ingot or pig molds, a class 60 iron would fail quickly, whereas good performance is shown by class 25 iron. In machine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... of steel from raw materials to finished mill products is shown in Fig. 1 . Steel production starts with the reduction of ore in a blast furnace into pig iron. Because pig iron is rather impure and contains carbon in the range of 3 to 4.5 wt%, it must be further refined in either a basic oxygen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... be separated magnetically from other scrap. The scrap is either remelted in an electric arc furnace or added to pig iron in a basic oxygen furnace. All grades of steel can be recycled because most alloying elements are oxidized during processing. Tin and copper are the exceptions, and there is concern...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... observed that where the air blast impinged on the molten metal in the finery, the metal was whiter in color or hotter; the cold air was not chilling the metal but was reacting with it chemically to generate heat. Kelly immediately saw the value of this reaction as a means of converting pig iron to wrought...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... quickly and the results confirmed before unloading the truck. The major raw materials used for molding and casting are: Metallic charge materials — large bulk amounts Pig iron (for gray iron and ductile iron) Steel scrap (plates, bars, and railroad scrap) Briquetted steel turnings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... are percent elongation and percent reduction in area in a tension test. The Bessemer melting process, which enabled the common use of steel, refines the pig iron that comes from the blast furnace. The blast furnace reduces the iron ore to metallic iron. The iron made from ore (pig iron) is too brittle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... machine experiences rapid temperature fluctuations as the steel is poured and the pig molds are sprayed with cooling water to prepare for the next pour (see Chapter 2 , “ Overview of Iron and Steel Manufacturing ,” in this book). Cylinder blocks and heads experience rapid temperature fluctuations in each...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... treatment in order to produce a ferritic structure. For this purpose, it is necessary to use deep-drawing or other special grades of steel scrap and pig iron of a quality required specially for ductile iron production. The chief advantage of ductile iron is that the preferred spheroidal shape can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... Manganese content beyond this limit acts as a pearlite promoter, increasing strength and hardness. 4.8.2 Sulfur Iron and steel melts of pig irons from blast furnaces contain some amount of sulfur. Sulfur combines with iron and forms iron sulfide, which collects at the grain boundaries and impairs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... consists of melting metallic raw materials such as pig iron, steel, and scrap and pouring the resulting melt into sand molds, which are shaped into a finish casting configuration designed to perform a targeted function as a component in machinery or equipment. Metallic permanent molds are more common...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... the chemistry. Add any necessary additions to the metal. Adjust the temperature. Tap into a ladle. Selection off Metallic Charge Material Selection of charge materials is a major concern for steel foundries. The foundry will remelt the risers, runners, pigs, and other scrap produced from...