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physical aging

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... steels. coefficients of linear thermal expansion carbon steels low-alloy steels thermal conductivity heat capacity physical properties Table A6.1 Coefficients of linear thermal expansion for carbon and low-alloy steels AISI-SAE grade Treatment or condition Average coefficient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... dimensions or surfaces compared to planar which is unidirectional. Higher charge carriers in relatively smaller gate length result in faster turn on/off characteristics at the device level and better overall performance at the full chip level. The physics of operation of the two device types are similar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... considered the pioneer of titanium in later years when it became a common metal in the aerospace age. FIG. 9.1 Matthew Hunter produced small amounts of titanium for laboratory use. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Another early attempt to make titanium was in the 1920s at the Philips Company in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., austenitizing, tempering, aging, and conditioning. thermal processing austenitic stainless steel ferritic stainless steel duplex stainless steel precipitation-hardenable stainless steel soaking annealing stress relieving austenitizing tempering aging THE THERMAL...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and precipitation-hardening. In addition, information on special considerations for stainless steel castings is also provided. The heat treatment processes explained in the chapter are preheating, annealing, stress relieving, hardening, tempering, austenite conditioning, heat aging, and nitride...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the compositions, properties, and uses of silver, gold, and platinum group metals, including platinum, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and osmium. It describes the role of various alloying elements and explains how they affect physical, mechanical, and electrical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... without standard grain-refining practices used to evaluate physical and compositional effects. The cast samples were then tested in the F, T4, T6, and T5 (aged 4 h at 215 °C, or 420 °F) tempers. With the high-iron-containing AZ91C, none of the variations tested significantly affected the poor corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... location influence measured properties. It also provides information and data on the physical and mechanical properties of superalloys, particularly tensile strength, creep-rupture, fatigue, and fracture, and discusses related factors such as directionality, porosity, orientation, elongation, and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., silicon, and nickel affect the physical and mechanical properties of coppers and high-copper alloys as well as brasses, bronzes, copper-nickels, and nickel silvers. It also explains how alloying affects electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, stress-corrosion cracking, and processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... stabilizers. It explains how precipitates provide strength by impeding deformation under load. It also discusses the factors that influence grain size, shape, and orientation and how they can be controlled to optimize mechanical and physical properties. alloying elements crystal structure gamma double...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... strengths are not required Age single-pass welds to full strength Use compatible filler Weld discontinuities are interruptions in the desirable physical structure of a weld. A discontinuity constituting a danger to a weld’s fitness for service is a defect. By definition, a defect is a condition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the physical characteristics, properties, and behaviors of solid solutions under equilibrium conditions. It begins with a review of a single-component pure metal system and its unary phase diagram. It then examines the solid solution formed by copper and nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter provides basic materials selection information for iron-nickel-, nickel-, and cobalt-base superalloys. It discusses mechanical and physical properties, the effect of service temperature, and the comparative strengths of wrought and cast product forms. It includes several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... subsequent high-resolution physical analyses. 3D hot-spot localization electrical shorts lock-in thermography phase-shift analysis thermally active defects Today’s package developments including system in package (SiP) approaches, wafer level packaging (WLP), chip embedding, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract Steel is an important material because of its tremendous flexibility in metal working and heat treating to produce a variety of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. The purpose of this chapter is to present the metallurgical principles of heat treatment of steel in a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Moore's Law has driven many degree circuit features below the resolving capability of optical microscopy. Yet the optical microscope remains a valuable tool in failure analysis. This article describes the physics governing resolution and useful techniques for extracting the small...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Beryllium is an extraordinary metal with an unusual combination of physical and mechanical properties. It has low density, high stiffness, and excellent dimensional stability. It is also transparent to x-rays and can be machined to extremely close tolerances. This chapter discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the common nonferrous alloys that can be hardened through heat treatment. The nonferrous alloys covered include aluminum alloys, cobalt alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. age hardening aluminum alloys cobalt alloys copper alloys heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... dislocation theory light microscope metal structure metallography phase diagram precipitation hardening X-ray diffraction The science of metals, unlike that of chemistry and physics, was slow to develop. Early researchers, especially chemists who were developing ideas and techniques for determining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... resistance to arcing, welding, or sticking. Where these characteristics are important, copper-tungsten or copper-graphite mixtures made by P/M processing are used. However, when used in a helium atmosphere, a Cu-CdO contact performs similarly to an Ag-CdO contact. Copper alloys are used for high currents in...