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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the presence of intermediate phases affects the melting behavior of binary alloys and the transformations that occur under different rates of cooling. It begins by examining the phase diagrams of magnesium-lead and copper-zinc, noting some of the complexities...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the construction, interpretation, and use of ternary phase diagrams. It begins by examining a hypothetical phase space diagram and several corresponding two-dimensional plots. It then describes one of the most basic tools of metallurgy, the Gibbs triangle, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the unique characteristics of isomorphous alloy systems. It begins with a review of the naming conventions for multi-component systems and the construction of a three-dimensional phase diagram for a two-component alloy system. It explains how phase diagrams can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses some of the methods and measurements used to construct phase diagrams. It explains how cooling curves were widely used to determine phase boundaries, and how equilibrated alloys examined under controlled heating and cooling provide information for constructing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... solution. It also explains the aspects of a phase diagram that shows what phase or phases are present in the alloy under conditions of thermal equilibrium. Finally, a discussion on the applications of equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. atomic bonding body-centered cubic equilibrium phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... presence of carbides during austenitization; plain carbon and low-alloy steels do not. This chapter describes the austenitization process used in each of the two cases, namely single-phase austenitization (the accepted method for plain carbon low-alloy steels) and two-phase austenitization (required for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter provides a brief overview of phase diagrams, explaining what they represent and how and why they are used. It identifies key points, lines, and features on a binary nickel-copper phase diagram and explains what they mean from a practical perspective. It also discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the physical characteristics, properties, and behaviors of solid solutions under equilibrium conditions. It begins with a review of a single-component pure metal system and its unary phase diagram. It then examines the solid solution formed by copper and nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This appendix includes two annotated iron-carbon (Fe-C) phase diagrams. One is a poster-size diagram showing iron-carbon phases up to 7 wt% C along with representative microstructures. The other diagram is close-up view showing the phases that occur from 0 to 1.2 wt% C. It also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Metallurgy, as discussed in this chapter, focuses on phases normally encountered in stainless steels and their characteristics. This chapter describes the thermodynamics and the three basic phases of stainless steels: ferrite, austenite, and martensite. Formation of the principal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the principles of chemical thermodynamics are used in the construction and interpretation of phase diagrams. After a brief review of the laws of thermodynamics, it describes the concept of Gibbs free energy and its application to transformations that occur in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of phase diagrams in alloy design, processing, and performance assessment. The examples cover both ferrous and nonferrous metals and a variety of goals and objectives. The chapter also identifies limitations and pitfalls associated with the use of phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract In order to understand how the strength of steels is controlled, it is extremely useful to have an elementary understanding of two topics: solutions and phase diagrams. This chapter provides an introduction to these topics with suitable examples. mechanical strength phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of a computational method, called CALPHAD, used for the study of phase equilibria in multicomponent systems. It describes the thermodynamic models and calculation techniques employed in the software and explains how it applies to complex alloys used in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... that determine the formation of microstructures during heat treatment processing of steel, and some of the characteristic properties of each of the microstructures. The discussion also covers the constitution of iron during heat treatment and the phases of heat-treated steel with elaborated information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... system by which they are defined, and the applications for which they are suited. It then explains how primary alloying elements, second-phase constituents, and impurities affect yield strength, phase formation, and grain size and how they induce structural changes that help refine certain alloys. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steel is made by adding carbon to iron, producing a solid solution defined by its crystalline structure. This chapter discusses the effect of carbon composition and temperature on the types of structures, or phases, that form. Using detailed phase diagrams, it explains how low-carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... production of hypo- and hypereutectoid steels and the effect of cooling rate on microstructure. It also examines quenched steels and the phase transformations associated with rapid cooling. It describes the development of lath and plate martensite, retained austenite, and bainite and how to identify the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter examines the effect of heat treating and other processes on the microstructure-property relationships that occur in superalloys. It discusses precipitation and grain-boundary hardening and how they influence the phases, structures, and properties of various alloys. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.9781627083102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2