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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the iron-carbon phase diagram, its modification by alloying elements, and the effect of carbon on the chemistry and crystallography of austenite, ferrite, and cementite found in Fe-C alloys and steels. It also lays the groundwork for understanding important metallurgical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development of the nomenclature used to describe the constitution and structure of metals and alloys, particularly the phases observed in the microstructure of steel. It also points out some of the problems with current nomenclature and provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the phases and constituents present in iron-carbon steels in near-equilibrium conditions. It explains how to use phase diagrams to predict and manage the development of ferrite, austenite, cementite, and pearlite through controlled cooling. It discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract The microstructure of superalloys is highly complex, with a large number of dispersed intermetallics and other phases that modify alloy behavior through their composition, morphology, and distribution. This chapter provides an overview of the most notable phases, including the matrix...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the presence of intermediate phases affects the melting behavior of binary alloys and the transformations that occur under different rates of cooling. It begins by examining the phase diagrams of magnesium-lead and copper-zinc, noting some of the complexities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Abstract Structurally differentiated intermetallic phases are important constituents in the microstructure of aluminum alloys, with the potential to influence properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. These phases can form in aluminum-silicon alloys with transition metals (Fe, Mn...
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Published: 31 January 2024
Fig. A1 At 300 °C (572 °F), the phases are (Al) with 79 wt% Zn, and (Zn) with 99 wt% Zn. Note: Parentheses around an element indicate that it is a solid solution. More
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Published: 31 January 2024
Fig. A32 Phases present are austenite (γ) at 2.08 wt% carbon and liquid at 4.36 wt% carbon. Note: For irons, the dashed lines indicate the phase boundaries for iron in equilibrium with graphite. More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 9 Copper-silicon phase diagram with multiple solid phases More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 2.29 Dihedral angle, θ, between two interfaces of differing phases. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 4 Isothermal precipitation kinetics for detrimental σ/χ phases for the 254 SMO (S31254), 904L, and 317 LMN alloys. For comparison, the isothermal stability curve for the formation of chromium carbide in type 316 stainless steel is presented. Source: Ref 49 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 6 Isothermal precipitation kinetics of carbides, σ/χ, and α′ phases in 2304, 2205, and 2507 duplex stainless steels. Source: Ref 49 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 13.9 Micrographs showing the formation of sulfide and nitride phases beneath the external oxide scales on nickel (top) and chromium (bottom) metals. Nickel exposed in flowing SO 2 for 8 h at 1000 °C (1832 °F). Chromium oxidized in air for 17 h at 1200 °C (2092 °F) More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 14.24 Phases present in various commercial alloys at various quenching temperatures. Source: Ref 14.10 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 2 Schaeffler-Delong constitution diagram showing phases present in as-solidified stainless steels at room emperature as a function of composition demonstrating carbon and nitrogen contributions to nickel effects. Adapted from A.L. Schaeffler, Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 8.14 Phase diagram showing the equilibrium phases of carbon. Source: Ref 8.2 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 2.21 Microstructures of various phases of steel. Source: Ref 2.4 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 32 Individual phases in induction heating and spray quenching in the workpiece surface layer and corresponding temperature-diameter diagrams. Source: Ref 15 , 27 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.32 Molar fraction of phases in equilibrium as a function of temperature for an ASTM A890/A890M, Grade 6A duplex stainless steel. Solubilization annealing is usually performed around 1100 °C (2010 °F). Below approximately 1000 °C (1830 °F), ferrite decomposes in austenite and sigma (σ More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.38 Molar fraction of phases in equilibrium as a function of temperature for an ASTM A890/A890M Grade 1C duplex stainless steel. Solubilization annealing is normally performed above 1000 °C (1830 °F). Below approximately 950 °C (1740 °F) ferrite decomposes into austenite and sigma (σ More