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phase transformations

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... on iron phase transformation, hysteresis in heating and cooling, ferrite and austenite as two crystal structures of solid iron, and the diffusion coefficient of carbon. austenite bainite carbon cementite diffusion coefficient ferrite heat treatment iron martensite microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-Phase Transformation Interactions—Basic Principles, Modelling and Calculation of Internal Stresses , Mater. Sci. Technol. , Vol 1 , 1985 , p 805 – 814 10.1179/mst.1985.1.10.805 13. Grossmann M.A. , The Nature of the Quenching Process , Elements of Hardenability , American Society...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... conditions that can be approximated as equilibrium conditions. The process by which any material changes from one atomic arrangement to another when heated or cooled is called a phase transformation . These phase changes—which can be done very slowly—are called equilibrium transformations , because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-7Cu Zn-43.8Ni Cu-31.1In Hf-6.3V U-0.3Cr Zr-4.5Ag Cu-5.2Si Hf-8.2W U-0.6Mo Zr-1.7Cr Source: Ref 1 In addition, martensitic transformations serve as the principal hardening mechanism in some nonferrous metals and alloys. The nonferrous martensite phases have different crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., which is an extremely brittle tetragonal structure that is usually avoided. Fig. 1 Iron-chromium equilibrium phase diagram. Source: Ref 2 The phase diagram shows that for some compositions, solid solutions can be transformed into austenite by heating them into the gamma loop, and when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of steel. Fig. 1 Iron-carbon binary phase diagram with areas of steel annealing temperatures above, below, and in the range of the lower critical temperature ( A 1 ). Actual annealing involves rates of heating and cooling, and critical temperatures during heating ( Ac 1 ) and cooling Sources...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the carbide phase. The designations of ferrite (α), austenite (γ), and Fe 3 C, therefore, can be used in the ternary system to identify the same phases that occur in the Fe-Fe 3 C binary system. However, silicon raises the transformation temperature range, decreases carbon solubility in austenite, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... treatment temperature depends on prior deformation, grain size, and holding time. The recrystallization process produces strain-free grain nucleation, resulting in a ductile, spheroidized microstructure. Isothermal annealing Heating the hypoeutectoid steel within the austenitic transformation range...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... attributed to the inhibiting effect of silicon on the conversion of epsilon (ε) carbide to cementite. Molybdenum retards the softening of martensite at all tempering temperatures. Above 540 °C (1000 °F), molybdenum partitions to the carbide phase and thus keeps the carbide particles small and numerous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the workpiece heating more quickly than the inside, and (b) phase change stresses, which occur when the body-centered cubic (bcc) ferrite transforms and contracts to become face-centered cubic (fcc) austenite, as it crosses the lower critical temperature. If the tool steel is simply heated to the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... monotonically with carbon content up to approximately 0.7 wt%. At the higher levels of carbon, some of the softer austenitic phase remains stable after quenching, and the hatched area indicates hardness with retained austenite. Low-alloy steels have additional alloying from about 2 wt% up to levels just below...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... . Phase change: Particle production routes based on phase change usually involve liquid-to-solid transformations without reactions; the powders are formed by spraying a melt using gas or water jets, centrifugal force, plasma spraying, or vapor condensation, proving ideal for ferrous alloys, copper alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... temperature of the material, R is the gas constant, and C is a material-geometry constant. In the case of the aluminum nitride shrinkage in Fig. 8.10 , the exponent N is near 0.33, or 1/ N = 3. Additionally, the sintering rate changes if a phase transformation occurs. Figure 8.11 illustrates this...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., followed by sintering densification. Fig. 3.1 Outline of how constituents of backbone, filler, and additive phases are combined to produce a binder and, in turn, the powder-binder combination provides a feedstock used for shaping. The binder jetting option in additive manufacturing selectively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Metal Injection Molding , Medical Device Materials , Shrivastave S. , Ed., ASM International , Materials Park, OH , 2004 , p 408 – 413 • Jung I.D. , Ha S. , Park S.J. , Blaine D.C. , Bollina R. , and German R.M. , Two-Phase Master Sintering Curve for 17-4 PH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... removal of a multiple-phase binder starting from a saturated condition where all pores are filled with binder. Debinding is performed in two stages, with the first designed to penetrate and open channels for subsequent evaporation of the backbone polymer in the second stage. Common binders are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the metallurgy, composition, and properties of steels and other alloys. It provides information on the atomic structure of metals, the nature of alloy phases, and the mechanisms involved in phase transformations, including time-temperature effects and the role of...