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petroleum refining

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as an unavoidable part of petroleum refining and petrochemical operations. Partially due to this historical view of corrosion, one of the primary causes of operational problems in refining and petrochemical operations is corrosion. Corrosion problems increase operating and maintenance costs substantially. Time...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in petroleum refining, where hydrogen attack was observed. It documents the extent of the damage in each case and identifies the source of the hydrogen. coal-fired boilers hydrogen attack 17.1 Introduction Hydrogen attack can result in brittle fracture of a steel component during high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract This chapter reviews weld corrosion in three key application areas: petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, boiling water reactor piping systems, and components used in pulp and paper plants. The discussion of each area addresses general design and service characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Plant Reliability Through Corrosion Monitoring , Fourth International Conference on Process Plant Reliability , Gulf Publishing, 1995 , p 3 Selected References Selected References General refinery information • “Petroleum Refining Processes,” OSHA Technical Manual , Section IV...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... and erosion resistance Cupronickels; titanium; brass; stainless steels Operating conditions for petroleum-refining pressure vessels (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490001-ref7">Ref 7</xref> and <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490001-ref8">8</xref>) Table 1.2. Operating conditions for petroleum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... of Cr-Mo Steels , Trans. ASME, J. Pressure Vessel Tech. , Vol 107 , Aug 1985 , p 230 - 238 10.1115/1.3264441 15. Shaw B.J. , “ Characterization Study of Temper Embrittlement of Chromium-Molybdenum Steels, ” proceedings of the American Petroleum Institute, Division of Refining , Vol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses various factors pertinent to the prevention of corrosion in alloys for petroleum applications and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... consensus. In the United States, the administering body is the American Petroleum Industry (API), but all oil-refining countries have systems in place to refine oils to certain standards. When an oil is refined, it is refined to a designated group, and these groups are called base oils. American petroleum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... and reduced costs. One of the major environmental and societal challenges for the 21st century is the global increase in urban pollution—which results from the growing demand for petroleum consumption—and its adverse effect on the global climate. The estimated number of automobiles in the world...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... and chemical processing are frequently contaminated with various amounts of sulfur. Sulfur is one of the corrosive species in petroleum-refining operations. When combustion takes place with excess air to ensure complete combustion of fuel for generating heat in many industrial processes, sulfur in the fuel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract The discovery and use of materials have shaped civilization since ancient times. This chapter traces the history of the use of metals from hammered copper estimated to be 11,000 years old to the development of electrolytically refined aluminum in 1884. The discussion covers the advent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... from a surface motor and pump. Gas Wells Most gas wells flow naturally. These include dry gas wells, which produce mainly gaseous hydrocarbons, and gas-condensate wells, which produce significant quantities of liquid hydrocarbons, sometimes water, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methane at high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... operation, for example, petroleum refinery Redundant equipment Installation of three large fans where two are required during operation Corrosion control   Inhibitors Injection of oil wells   Organic coatings Coal tar on exterior of underground pipeline Paint on wooden furniture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test • D 610, Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces • D 665, Test Method for Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water • D 849, Test Method for Copper Corrosion of Industrial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stainless steel used, are notably absent from the cast alloys. This is because these alloys are single phase at all temperatures in the solid state and because they have large as-cast grain sizes that can only be refined by heavy cold work followed by annealing. This makes them quite lacking in toughness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... On the other hand, the refined products industry is well versed in the use of inhibitors. Some amines as well as ammonium hydroxide have been shown to have an inhibiting effect on ethanol SCC ( Ref 2.130 ). Methanol Methanol is used in petroleum pipelines for pressure testing in cold climates, to remove...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... that are well known but are more limited in application are those of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the Aerospace Material Specification (AMS), the American Welding Society (AWS), the American Petroleum Institute (API), and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Fabrication...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... and parts 12.5 billion Residential and nonresidential construction 10.0 billion Aircraft and parts 6.7 billion Structural metal and other fabricated metal products 5.5 billion Petroleum refining and industrial chemicals 4.2 billion Primary metals (iron, steel, aluminum, etc.) 3.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and transportation of oil and gas (i.e., midstream) up to the refinery (i.e., downstream). Refinery corrosion is discussed in the article “ Corrosion in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Operations .” Although industry standards and specification are referenced throughout this article, additional information...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... mechanisms refines the final grain structure of the casting. Structural Zone Formation As in pure metals, solidification begins with nucleation of solid on the walls of the mold, again forming a chill zone. Then those grains that are most favorably oriented grow inward, forming a columnar zone...