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petrochemical operations

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as an unavoidable part of petroleum refining and petrochemical operations. Partially due to this historical view of corrosion, one of the primary causes of operational problems in refining and petrochemical operations is corrosion. Corrosion problems increase operating and maintenance costs substantially. Time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract This chapter reviews weld corrosion in three key application areas: petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, boiling water reactor piping systems, and components used in pulp and paper plants. The discussion of each area addresses general design and service characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter outlines the topics covered in the book and explains why and to whom the book was written. The book is intended for engineers, metallurgists, and failure analysts who work with materials and components that operate in high-temperature corrosive environments. It covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... alloys high-temperature corrosion IN MANY INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS, plant operating conditions can be quite complex; it is rather difficult to use laboratory tests to simulate plant conditions. However, laboratory tests can provide good general guidance for making preliminary alloy selection. In situ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Fireside corrosion can be a serious problem in oil-fired boilers and in refinery furnaces fired with low-grade fuels. This chapter provides an overview of fireside or oil-ash corrosion and the problems it can cause in utility power boilers and petrochemical refinery furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
..., hydrodesulfurizing, and catalytic reforming. Examples of the reactions involved in the various refining processes may be found in Ref 6 . Modern petroleum refining and petrochemical processing may involve operating conditions for the ferritic steel pressure vessels extending to metal temperatures up to 565 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... boilers, oil- and gas-fired boilers, waste heat boilers, and black liquor recovery boilers. It also describes the operation and working principle of utility or power plant boilers, covering conventional subcritical and advanced supercritical types. black liquor recovery boilers electric boilers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... by the petrochemical industry (4). The effect of temperature upon creep rates and rupture stresses are shown for an HP-Nb alloy in Figures 22-4 and 22-5 . Fig. 22-4 Dependence of the minimum creep rate on stress and temperature, illustrated by HP-Nb alloy data Fig. 22-5 Dependence of rupture life...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... in valves and the U-bends in petrochemical plants. The advantage of this design is in the prevention of leaks of potentially harmful chemicals (Figure 11-11). Castability The use of two cast forms, static and centrifugaUy cast, is shown in Figure 11-12. The combination of the centrifugal casting operation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 4 ) scale when steel is corroded by water under normal operating conditions: (17.2) 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O → Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 The by-product of the reaction is hydrogen. The growth of the magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) scale that forms on the steel surface follows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Overview Basics Resistance to microstructural change or to mechanical deformation is a sensitive function of time, temperature, stress, and environment. At lower temperatures, in nonvibratory service (below the yield strength), operational loads on components can be carried indefinitely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... acquisition data reporting data trending data reviewing data auditing HUGE AMOUNTS OF TIME AND MONEY are invested in designing, constructing, commissioning, and operating major petroleum and petrochemical installations. To safeguard this investment and to ensure adequate prevention of adverse effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... such as electrical power plants, coal gasification plants, and petroleum refining and petrochemical operations. Effects of Liquid Velocity When a liquid passing over an aluminum surface exceeds a certain velocity, grooves can be worn in the surface, the probable result of mechanical and chemical action...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... without additional operations. Fig. 10-5 Weld fillet geometry for corner designs 1 and 5 in the box section ( 1 ) Yielding under Static Loading The L and box sections of both castings and weldments were tested statically to failure ( Table 10-3 ). The steel castings yielded...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... a corrosion standpoint, the following factors play an integral and often critical role in the anticipated outcome: Specification Fabrication and quality control Storage and transportation Operation Maintenance In weighing the relative importance of these factors, the designer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... is its combination of relatively high mechanical strength and surface stability at high operating temperatures. This chapter provides a brief history of the development of superalloys and discusses their use in the gas turbine engines. superalloys THERE IS NO STRICT DEFINITION of a superalloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... castings remains critical to their success. Steel castings excel in this service where resistance to shock and fatigue, high strength, and toughness must be maintained with minimum weight. Safety, protection of cargo, and operating economy are required in railroad equipment. These factors, coupled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... pipes, tubes, plates, beams, nails, screws, machine tools, springs, wire, and so forth. Steels also are developed for improved characteristics during specific manufacturing or fabrication operations such as sheet forming, machining, and welding. There are many varieties of steels such as plain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... must be examined and considered very carefully because many of the different failure modes tend to interact. As a rule, the type of failure is established by examination of the fracture surfaces and comparison of operating conditions with available data on elevated-temperature fractures. In addition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... that may vary considerably in price and availability over time. Applications The high-temperature applications of superalloys are extensive, including components for aircraft, chemical plant equipment, and petrochemical equipment. Figure 1.2 shows the F119 engine, which is the latest in a series...