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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The microstructure of carbon steel is largely determined by the transformation of austenite to ferrite, cementite, and pearlite. This chapter focuses on the microstructures produced by diffusion-controlled transformations that occur at relatively low cooling rates. It describes the conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the mechanical properties of ferrite/pearlite microstructures in medium-carbon steels. annealing ferrite normalizing pearlite spherical carbides spheroidizing THIS CHAPTER DESCRIBES heat treatments that are designed to produce uniformity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the mechanical properties of fully pearlitic microstructures and their suitability for wire and rail applications. It begins by describing the ever-increasing demands placed on rail steels and the manufacturing methods that have been developed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure and properties of annealed and normalized steels containing more than 0.25% carbon. It shows, using detailed micrographs, how incrementally higher levels of carbon affect the structure and distribution of pearlite and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the phases and constituents present in iron-carbon steels in near-equilibrium conditions. It explains how to use phase diagrams to predict and manage the development of ferrite, austenite, cementite, and pearlite through controlled cooling. It discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... discusses the spheroidization of normalized and annealed steels by heating at subcritical temperatures. It explains how lamellar pearlite and proeutectoid cementite transform when heated and how deformation prior to heating affects both the mechanism and kinetics of spheroidization. It also explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Fig. 9.1 (Part 1) Pearlite formation (at 705 and 650 °C) in isothermal transformation of 0.8% C eutectoid steels. 0.81C-0.07Si-0.65Mn (wt%). Figure 9.2 completes this series. (a) Austenitized at 860 °C, transformed at 705 °C for 150 s. Picral. 250×. (b) Austenitized at 860 °C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Austenite is the key to the versatility of steel and the controllable nature of its properties. It is the parent phase of pearlite, martensite, bainite, and ferrite. This chapter discusses the importance of austenite, beginning with the influence of austenitic grain size and how to accurately...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...-manganese and niobium- and vanadium-containing steels, and high-strength low-alloy steels. Chapter 5 discusses the composition, microstructure, and properties of these workhorse materials and explains how to identify the cause of production-related issues such as lamellar tearing and ferrite-pearlite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... are often confused. Most of the information in the chapter is of a practical nature, covering application-oriented topics such as isothermal transformation (IT) and continuous transformation (CT) diagrams which are used to predict and control the rate of formation of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of 30%). Pearlite and ferrite. Along the longitudinal section, it is possible to observe the deformation of ferrite that resulted from the drawing operation. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal Aços Longos, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Fig. 12.36 Longitudinal cross section of a AISI 1006...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... spectroscopy. It explains how the tools work and what they reveal. It also covers the topic of image analysis and its application in the measurement of grain size, phase/volume fraction, delta ferrite and retained austenite, inclusion rating, depth of carburization/decarburization, scale thickness, pearlite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (a) Pearlite 11.916 Austenite 11.401 + 0.329 C (a) Martensite 11.789 + 0.370 C (a) (a) Carbon percent. Source: Ref 2 Definitions of critical transformation temperatures in steel Table 6 Definitions of critical transformation temperatures in steel Ae 1 The critical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... at the white end of the gray-level range in an optical image. Because they all appear white, it is often not possible to distinguish between them by their appearance (gray levels) without further information. Now consider pearlite. The common etches used for steels, nital (nitric acid in alcohol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... 100% When the alloy is cooled past the eutectoid temperature (720 °C, or 1333 °F), ferrite and cementite form side by side within the austenite to create a nodule of pearlite, the eutectoid microconstituent. A phase analysis just below the eutectoid temperature reveals: Point: 0.8% C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and cementite that forms is called pearlite, a lamellar construction consisting of alternating layers of ferrite and cementite. As shown in Fig. 10.7 , either ferrite or cementite nuclei form at austenite grain boundaries and then grow as colonies into the austenite grains, with the layers oriented...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Fig. 2.1(a) Various microstructures formed in an AISI/SAE 1080 steel. A fully pearlitic microstructure. 4% picral etch. 500× Fig. 2.1(b) A fully bainitic microstructure. 4% picral etch. 1000× Fig. 2.1(c) A fully martensitic microstructure. Sodium metabisulfite etch. 1000...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... W.S. , Schoen E.J. , and Srinivasan G.R. , in Phase Transformations , American Society for Metals , Cleveland , 1968 , p. 157 . Pearlite Sorbite and Troostite Bainite Conclusion Austenite Ferrite Cementite Carbide Graphite Martensite Single-Phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... at moderate strength levels. This class of steels uses microalloying to develop extra strength in ferrite/pearlite microstructures produced directly on cooling from forging temperatures. Microadditions of vanadium and niobium, below 0.20%, are less expensive than substantial alloying additions of chromium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... and cementite. This aggregate is also known as pearlite. The A 1 temperature is, therefore, frequently referred to as the pearlite point. Because the A 1 temperature involves the transformation of austenite to pearlite (which contains cementite, Fe 3 C), pure iron does not possess an A 1 transformation...