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passive films

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Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.73 Schematic representation of (a) passive film, (b) passive film rupture by stress-induced slip resulting in exposure of bare substrate, (c) crack initiation by anodic dissolution initiating crevice corrosion conditions before repassivation of exposed substrate, and (d) repassivation More
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 16 Danger of anodic protection when a protective (passive) film is not realized More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.3 Stages of penetration of passive film leading to corrosion pit formation. (a) Initial stage of pit formation. (b) Partially perforated passive film on pit. (c) Fragment of passive film on edge of pit. Source: Ref 3 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.4 A mechanism for (a) initiation and (b) development of a passive film. Source: Ref 6 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.10 (a) Partially perforated passive film on pit in type 304 stainless steel. (b) Fragment of passive film over edge of pit. 0.4 M FeCl 3 . Source: Ref 3 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and inhibitors. It also provides information on various stages of pitting: passive film breakdown, metastable pitting, pit growth, and pit stifling or death. pitting corrosion passive film breakdown metastable pitting pit growth pit stifling MANY ENGINEERING ALLOYS, such as stainless steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
.... The chapter discusses the factors that influence the growth and quality of this naturally passivating film, particularly the role of oxidizing and inhibiting species, temperature, and alloying elements. It also discusses the effect of different corrosion processes and environments as well as hydrogen, stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... , that must be exceeded on an upscan of potential to initiate formation of the passive film; the passivating potential, E pp , at which the current density begins to decrease; and by the magnitude of the current density in the passive condition, i p . The magnitude of the change in current density between i...
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.65 Schematic EPR (electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation) curves for three amounts of sensitization of an austenitic stainless steel. Passive film formed at (1). Downscans pass through maximum attack at (2). Environment: 1 N H 2 SO 4 + 0.01 M KSCN at 30 °C. Curve (3) is observed More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... the rupture in the coating, corrosion may progress under the coating by crevice corrosion mechanisms, resulting in further damage. Rupture of Passive Films on Active-Passive Type Alloys such as Stainless Steels: Several conditions may cause rupture. Chemical species in solution can cause local breakdown...
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 1 Schematic of the passive oxide film that forms on aluminum More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... For metals that form a passive film, coupling with another metal of higher potential can cause the potential of the film-forming metal to shift from a value where it corrodes to one where a passive film is formed. When this is done intentionally, the procedure is referred to as anodic protection. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.72 Schematic representation of stress induced surface profiles representative of the potential ranges identified in Fig. 7.71 . (a) Hydrogen embrittlement. (b) Active corrosion. (c) Passive film cracking. (d) Passivity. (e) Pit-initiated cracking More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 5.35 Schematic polarization curve for an active-passive alloy having susceptibility to localized corrosion (pitting) due to chloride ions. Pitting initiates at Eb,pit. Small-dashed section is observed when chloride ion concentration initiates penetration of the passive film. More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.71 Potential ranges of stress-corrosion cracking by (I) hydrogen embrittlement, (II) cracking of unstable passive film, and (III) cracking initiated by pits near the pitting potential. Vertical dashed lines define potential range over which nonpassivating type films may crack under More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.5 Schematic representation of pit initiation by chloride ion penetration into passive film. Source: Ref 6 More
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 2 Schematic representations of the postulated theories of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) for aluminum alloys. (a) Anodic dissolution. (b) Hydrogen-induced cracking. (c) Rupture of the passive film. Source: Ref 3 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 3.20 Polarization curves for Fe 3+ reduction (Fe 3+ + e → Fe 2+ ) on platinum and on type 316 stainless steel, with a Fe 3+ = 1 and a Fe 2+ = 0.1 in chloride solution. The exchange current density is lower on the passive film of the stainless steel. The inflection in the curve near More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., which stem from the failure of this passive film. This chapter explores the behavior of stainless steel in media that promote uniform corrosion and the various mechanisms of localized corrosion, such as pitting and crevice corrosion. Introduction To most designers, the most recognized...