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particle growth

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... of austenite. The alloying elements produce this reduction in grain growth rates by two different mechanisms: particle drag and solute drag. The grains of steel (first discussed with Fig. 1.2 ) have three-dimensional shapes that can be modeled by soap bubbles, as shown in Fig. 8.1(a) . Similarly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... for homogeneous nucleation The total free-energy, Δ G , curve in Fig. 4.5 shows that there is a critical radius, r * , that the particle must reach before becoming a stable nucleus with continued growth assured. If the embryo is very small, further growth of the embryo would cause the total free energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., r *, that the particle must reach before it becomes a stable nuclei and continued growth is assured. If the embryo is very small, further growth of the embryo would cause the total free energy to increase. Therefore, the embryo remelts and causes a decrease in the free energy. When the particle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are then available to help accelerate the nucleation and growth process. The other heat treatable aluminum alloys behave similarly, but the precipitates are, of course, different. The progression of particle growth during the aging process is shown schematically in Fig. 9.10 , and a series of aging curves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... spheroidal in shape with increasing temperature ( Fig. 10.2 (Part 1) d to f ). The particles can also be seen to decrease in number and increase in size with increasing tempering temperature or tempering time, and it is only when this growth process is reasonably well advanced that the cementite particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... is reached, strength decreases with continuing particle growth, because dislocations no longer cut γ′ particles but bypass them. This effect can be demonstrated for tensile or hardness behavior in low- V f γ′ superalloys (A-286, Incoloy 901, Waspaloy) but may not be as readily apparent in high- V f γ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... by Smith C.S. , Grains, Phases, Interfaces: An Interpretation of Microstructure , Trans. AIME , Vol 175 , 1948 , p 15 – 51 8.26 Gladman T. , On the Theory of the Effect of Precipitate Particles on Grain Growth in Metals , Proc. R. Soc. ( London ) A , Vol 294 , 1966 , p 298 – 309...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... hardening temperatures are needed to dissolve the particles of tungsten-containing carbide in the austenite. Bain and Jeffries then concluded that the softening of hardened steel during tempering, which occurs in ordinary steel at low temperatures of 150 to 480 °C (300 to 900 °F), is caused by grain growth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... incongruent crystallization as αAl grains and massive particles of the silicon. At the next stage, these phases constitute the binary (αAl + Si) eutectic. The morphology of the particular crystals is formed during their growth from the liquid determined by solid-liquid (S-L) interface topography and thereby...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... in shrinkage and densification. Fig. 8.1 Scanning electron micrograph of spherical bronze particles undergoing early-stage sintering, as evident by the growth of necks between the particles Sintering—strengthening from heating—was first applied to ceramic pottery-making 26,000 years ago. Today...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the nucleating cementite particles until their growth has been stopped due to interaction with adjoining austenite grains nucleated by other cementite particles ( Fig. 8.1c ). All of the ferrite is eventually transformed in this manner ( Fig. 8.1d ). The ferrite grains in practical spheroidized steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... , Fretting Fatigue , Applied Science, 1981 , p 196 – 201 17. Lindley T.C. and Nix K.J. , The Role of Fretting in the Initiation and Early Growth of Fatigue Cracks in Turbo-Generator Materials , Multiaxial Fatigue , STP 853, American Society for Testing and Materials , 1982 , p 340...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... between L 2 and α. For low-dome alloys, the phases α and L 2 are separated by L 1 , as shown in Fig. 7.3 . At low growth rate, L 2 particles are pushed by the solid-liquid interface ( Fig. 7.3a ). If the solidification velocity increases above a critical velocity ( V cr ), L 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... they can be optimized. It also discusses the effect of metalworking and heat treatment, the influence of loading and operating conditions, and factors such as corrosion damage that can accelerate crack growth rates. aluminum alloys fatigue fracture fracture toughness steel titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... rearrangement without a phase change (for example, grain growth or particle coarsening) would occur in order to lower free energy to the minimum possible value. The free energy ( G ) per unit volume of a phase or combination of phases is defined in terms of other thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy or heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... temperatures. This chapter covers several types of component and material failure associated with wear, temperature effects, and crack growth. It examines temperature-induced, brittle, ductile, and fatigue failures as well as failures due to abrasive, erosive, adhesive, and fretting wear and cavitation fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... particles tend to pin grain boundaries and slow down grain growth. Fig. 8.22 Diffusion of atoms and grain boundary movement. Source: Ref 2 Empirically, it has been shown that grain growth occurs according to: (Eq 8.2) D = k t n where D is the average grain diameter, t...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... that alloying additions reduce austenite grain growth by two mechanisms: the formation of small particles ( Fig. 8.9 , 8.10 ) and grain-boundary segregation ( Fig. 8.12 ). ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... or decohesion of brittle particles, the growth and coalescence of the microvoids occurs by plastic deformation. Another difficulty is that cleavage fracture may be initiated by dislocation interactions that, by definition, involve plasticity. This is why fractures are sometimes difficult to logically classify...