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partial angle imaging

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... that dislocations on that slip plane slip or glide. If the normal, n , of the slip plane lies at an angle, ϕ, to the tensile axis, its area will be A /cos ϕ. Similarly, if the slip plane lies at an angle, λ, to the tensile axis, the component of the axial force, P , acting on the slip direction will be P cos λ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in the amplitudes of both reflected and refracted wave components. When reaching the critical angle for exciting additional wave modes, the incident energy will be partially transferred into this wave mode. Interaction of acoustic waves with material boundaries can be complex, and interpretation of acoustic images...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... can be used to identify fiber angles by sectioning and polishing the specimen at 45 degrees to the plane view ( Fig. 7.9 ) ( Ref 2 ). This creates elliptical images of the fibers in which the angle of the fibers can be determined based on the aspect ratio of the fibers and simple geometry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...] and limited with partial information due to the lack of depth, especially with the semiconductor technology nodes continue to shrink and assume the 3D FinFET structure. Recently, 3D imaging (application and limitation of 3D STEM tomography) followed by introduction of 3D chemical maps (3D EDS elemental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the various features of the metallurgical microscope. Key concepts are defined such as resolving power, the virtual image, bright- and dark-field illumination, numerical aperture, focal length, image contrast, depth of field, and spherical and chromatic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... tend to pack as densely as possible. In addition, total metallic bonding energy is increased when each atom has the greatest possible number of nearest-neighbor atoms. However, due to a shared bonding arrangement in some metals that is partially metallic and partially covalent, some metals do...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of microscope showing nomenclature. adapted by permission from www.molecularexpressions.com . Microscope Parts and Nomenclature Stereo Microscopes One effective form of depth perception comes from having each eye view from a slightly different angle causing image shift or parallax to each eye...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... components or structures to customers. Unfortunately, conducting NDE after welding has been completed is not satisfactory. The necessity of repairs has given NDE a negative image in the manufacturing process. The early implementation of NDE in the process and the consequent actions to reduce repair rates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
..., the flat surfaces are bright using this illumination technique, but any voids, microcracks, or indentations are darker because the light is reflected off the sample at an angle. Bright-field illumination is particularly useful for imaging samples for ply counts, fiber-orientation verification, resin...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.../asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245 CHAPTER 9 Glossary Copyright © 2002 ASM International® All rights reserved www.asminternational.org A Å, A., A.U., or ÅU. See angstrom unit. Acm, A1, A3, A4. Same as Aecm, Ae1, Ae3, and Ae4. aberration. Any error that causes image degradation. Such an error may be chromatic, spherical, astigmatic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... resolution is achievable in most practical applications. These systems also provide high imaging speed so that operator can manipulate samples’ position and view multiple angles to make real-time observations. Some manufacturers have also provided integration to CAD design data to allow live overlay on 3D X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... spectroscopy. It explains how the tools work and what they reveal. It also covers the topic of image analysis and its application in the measurement of grain size, phase/volume fraction, delta ferrite and retained austenite, inclusion rating, depth of carburization/decarburization, scale thickness, pearlite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... to form the image. The numerical aperture (NA) is a measure of the light collection capability of the objective and is defined as: (4-2) NA = n  sin  α where n is the minimum refraction index of the various materials between the specimen and the objective lens and α is the half-angle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... of these joining methods. It presents a comparison between solders and brazes. Further details on pressure welding and diffusion bonding are also provided. Key parameters of soldering are discussed, including surface energy and surface tension, wetting and contact angle, fluid flow, filler spreading...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... for detecting subsurface gas porosity in weldments. The radiographic image of round porosity appears as round or oval spots with smooth edges, and elongated porosity appears as oval spots with the major axis sometimes several times longer than the minor axis. The radiographic image of wormhole porosity depends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... that roughness is angled with respect to the detectors rather than the incident beam. When imaging a rough sample using BSE, the image can be altered radically by changing how the detected BSE signals are manipulated. The signals from all detectors should be added together when viewing BSE images from a rough...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...) and changes the orientation of the platelets to parallel to the wire axis in such a way that very reasonable ductility can be preserved. The hardening potential of these structures is presented in Fig. 12.13 . Fig. 12.12 Pearlite highly deformed during wire drawing. (a) Atomic force microscopy image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.9781627083522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to operate through the specified thickness such as SILs. Thinning also reduces the scatter and absorption of light especially at shorter wavelengths as shown in figure 1 allowing higher resolution imaging and detection of higher energy photons. Dopants in the bulk Si also necessitate thinner substrates due...