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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... energy and electrochemical potential, the effect of ionic concentration on electrode potential, and the corrosion behavior of a metal based on its potential-pH diagram. The corrosion (potential-pH) behavior of iron, gold, copper, zinc, aluminum, and titanium are described. Understanding the kinetics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms, that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the conditions under which copper-base alloys are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and some of the environmental factors, such as temperature, pH, and corrosion potential, that influence crack growth and time to failure. It explains that, although...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Abstract This chapter provides details on powder-binder processing for three materials, namely precipitation-hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel, cemented carbides, and alumina. The types of powders, binders, feedstock, shaping processes, debinding, sintering cycles, compositions, microstructure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., and selective leaching. It discusses the use of corrosion inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, pH control, and Pourbaix diagrams. corrosion mitigation crevice corrosion pitting corrosion stray current corrosion Pourbaix diagrams THE WORD CORRODE is derived from the Latin corrodere , which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... as an inert conductor) in contact with a solution at 25 °C, saturated with hydrogen gas at one atmosphere pressure, and containing hydrogen ions at pH = 0 (a H + = 1). In practice, the major use of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) is for calibration of secondary reference electrodes, which are more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of cathodic reactions Standard equilibrium half-cell potentials (a) , E o (mV vs. SHE) Variables required for correction of E o to E′ Oxidation due to H + ions or water H + + e = ½ H 2 pH < 7 0 a H + (pH), P H 2 H 2 O + e...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... ). At this point, iron at a potential of –620 mV (SHE) is in equilibrium with a solution of pH = 8 and a Fe 2+ = 10 –6 . The iron will remain uncoated and will not corrode, although there will be hydrogen evolution since the potential is below line (a). (It is important to note that the iron must be held...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... , Vol 21 , 1981 , p 95 – 100 10.1016/0010-938X(81)90094-9 55. Matsuda S. and Uhlig H.H. , Effect of pH, Sulfates, and Chlorides on Behavior of Sodium Chromate and Nitrite as Passivators for Steel , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 111 , 1964 , p 156 – 161 10.1149/1.2426075 56...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... a greater number of hydrogen ions, and strongly alkaline solutions have a greater concentration of hydroxyl ions. Fig. 14 Range of acidity and alkalinity The pH defines the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH is defined as −log(H + ); an increase of one pH unit is equivalent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... , Microstructural Evolution in a 17-4 PH Stainless Steel After Aging at 400 °C , Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A , Vol 30A , Feb 1999 . 10.1007/s11661-999-0323-2 3 Aggen G. , Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon University 4 Denhard E.E. , “ Stress Corrosion Cracking of High Strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of Pipelines and the Application of the 100 mV Polarization Criterion , Paper No. 02426, CORROSION/2002 , NACE International , 2002 25. Delanty B.S. and O’Beirne J. , Low-pH Stress Corrosion Cracking , Proc. 18th World Gas Conference, International Gas Union , Paris, France , 1991...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... NH 4 OH → Cu ( NH 3 ) 4 ( OH ) 2 + 3 H 2 O To minimize the corrosion of copper-base alloys, oxygen should be kept below 7 ppb and ammonia kept up to 0.5 mg/kg in the preboiler section. The concentration of ammonia should be consistent with the pH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...+ 0.771 O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4 e − = 4OH − (pH = 14) 0.401 2H + + 2 e − = H 2 0.000 Ni 2 + + 2 e − = Ni −0.250 Fe 2+ + 2 e − = Fe –0.447 Cr 3+ + 3 e − = Cr −0.744 2H 2 O + 2 e − = H 2 + 2OH − (pH = 14) −0.828 (a) NHE, normal hydrogen electrode. Source: Ref...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... 350–380 (662–716) Very rapid attack Ammonia, anhydrous 100 40 (104) <0.127 Ammonia, steam, water ... 222 (432) 11.2 Ammonium acetate 10 Room Nil Ammonium bicarbonate 50 100 (212) Nil Ammonium bisulfite, pH 2.05 Spent pulping liquor 71 (160) 0.015 Ammonium carbamate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., at a pH of 8.5. This precipitation requires the absence of fluoride, silica, phosphate, and organic matters. Beryllium can be separated from aluminum using 8-hydroxyquinoline. Aluminum is precipitated from an acetate-buffered acetic acid solution of pH 5.7. Iron and titanium can be precipitated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., silica, and porcelain have also been plated. The following are examples of electroless nickel formulas: Formula 1 45 g nickel chloride 11 g sodium hypophosphite 100 g sodium citrate 50 g ammonium chloride 1000 mL distilled water pH 8.5–9, use at 194–212°F Plating rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and distilled water Starts immediately The pH-potential range over how beryllium behaves in water at 25 °C is illustrated in Fig. 25.1 [ Pourbaix 1966 ]. Potential-versus-pH diagrams of this type are known as Pourbaix diagrams. The significance of potential (electromotive force) as related...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7