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oxygen furnace

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... steel: the electric arc furnace and the basic oxygen furnace. It also provides information on the classification and specifications for various steels, namely, plain carbon steels, low-carbon steels, medium-carbon plain carbon steels, and high-carbon plain carbon steels. The chapter concludes with a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... advancements that led from open hearth steelmaking to basic oxygen processes and ultimately the electric arc furnace (EAF). It describes the versatility, efficiency, and scalability of the EAF process and its impact on recycling and sustainability. It explains how EAF refining and deoxidation practices have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... latter often are severe contaminants to the furnace Add a substance to the surface layers of the work, such as by carburization Remove dissolved contaminating substances from metals, using the degassing effect of a vacuum, such as hydrogen or oxygen from titanium Join metals by brazing or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... involved in converting cast ingots into mill products. argon oxygen decarburization cast ingots electric arc furnace melting electroslag remelting mill products superalloys vacuum arc remelting vacuum induction melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Residual Fuel Oil Ash Deposits , Paper No. 185, Corrosion/94 , NACE International , 1994 21. McNallan M.J. , Thongtem S. , Liu J.C. , Park Y.S. , and Shyu P. , Corrosion of Chromium Containing Alloys in Non-steady State Environments Containing Oxygen, Carbon, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...., combustion with insufficient oxygen) in the lower furnace for reducing NO x emissions. As a result of the staged firing, sulfidation dominates the corrosion process for waterwall materials. The wastage rates for carbon and low alloy steels have been found to increase to an unacceptable rate for many boilers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... operations. The temperature sensors used in heat treating can be divided into contact and the noncontact types. The most common sensors available for the wide variety of furnace atmospheres used can be categorized into three major types: oxygen probe, dew point, and infrared. These sensors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... stainless steels. In the interest of good corrosion resistance, the primary goal in processing is to lower the oxygen content of the green part as much as possible, to prevent reoxidation in the cooling zone of the furnace, and to maintain a low carbon content of approximately 0.03% in austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... furnace from iron ore, limestone, and coke ( Fig. 5.13 ). Because it contains excessively high levels of silicon, manganese, carbon, and other elements, this liquid iron, together with scrap and fluxing agents, is then introduced into either a basic oxygen furnace or an electric-arc furnace for further...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... a discussion on the tools used for measuring bulk properties to monitor sintering and density. The effects of key parameters, such as particle size, oxygen content, sintering atmosphere, and peak temperature, on the sintered properties are discussed. Further, the chapter covers sintering cycles and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... illustrated in Fig. 13.2 ( Ref 8 ). The figure also shows the char bed that forms on the furnace hearth during combustion of black liquor. Table 13.1 Elemental compositions of black liquor from North American wood species Element Concentration, wt% Carbon 34–39 Hydrogen 3–5 Oxygen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... hardenability and tempering response. It discusses the significance of critical temperatures, the use of transformation diagrams, and types of annealing treatments. It also provides information on heat treating furnaces, the effect of heating rate on transformation temperatures, quench and temper procedures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... boundaries. In relation to intergranular oxidation, aluminum is preferable to titanium as a hardening element, because aluminum oxide provides a denser and less permeable barrier to the diffusion of oxygen. Molybdenum increases susceptibility to intergranular attack in age-hardenable alloys. Carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... chapter describes each method in detail and how it affects the microstructure and mechanical properties of various titanium alloys. It also discusses the propensity of titanium to react with oxygen and hydrogen when heated and explains how to mitigate the effects. extrusion forging mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment for normalizing. In...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... produced in an induction or electric arc furnace, sometimes under vacuum. To refine stainless steel, the argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) process is used. In AOD, an argon oxygen gas mixture is injected through the molten steel to remove carbon without a substantial loss of chromium, the main alloying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...