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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... measures. bending fatigue gas carburizing hardenability internal oxidation microstructure oxygen content surface hardness transformation products wear resistance The presence of internal oxidation at the surfaces of parts that are case hardened by pack or gas carburizing has been known...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... a discussion on the tools used for measuring bulk properties to monitor sintering and density. The effects of key parameters, such as particle size, oxygen content, sintering atmosphere, and peak temperature, on the sintered properties are discussed. Further, the chapter covers sintering cycles and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... argon content (reduced partial pressure of oxygen) until, thermodynamically, chromium metal becomes more stable than chromium oxide, and oxidized chromium is recovered from the slag. Similarly to the blown arc furnace, aluminum may be added to the melt and preferentially oxidized so that the aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the classification, composition, properties, and applications of five types of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening steels. It discusses the process involved in argon oxygen decarburization that is used to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., conventional processing; CaT, calcium treatment Interstitial elements, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, generally reduce the notch toughness of steels. This effect is especially evident in maraging steels, as shown in Fig. 17 . Oxygen content in steels is usually determined by the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... content, an excellent flux to basic oxides like those used as refractories. This difficulty has delayed the development of bottom-blown oxygen converters. Only with the development of concentric tuyeres, which made possible localized cooling using hydrocarbons, have bottom-blown converters ( Fig. 2.6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of oxygen ions when the inner and outer surfaces are subjected to atmospheres of different oxygen partial pressures—for example, a reference gas such as air, because its oxygen content is constant at 20.9% by volume at sea level, and the process furnace atmosphere, respectively. The electromotive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, oxygen analysis, and nanoindentation. cold-sprayed coatings residual-stress analysis hardness bond adhesion strength microscopy spectroscopy diffraction MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Since pig iron is rather impure and contains carbon in the range of 3 to 4.5 wt%, it must be further refined in either a basic oxygen or an electric arc furnace to produce steel that usually has a carbon content of less than 1 wt%. After the pig iron has been reduced to steel, it is cast into ingots or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the corrosion behavior of beryllium in gaseous atmospheres, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. It also discusses the development of high-temperature corrosion-resistant beryllium alloys. beryllium alloys beryllium corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... cutlery and tableware are then presented. Information on the development of alloys for specific applications and on the argon oxygen decarburization process is also provided. The chapter ends with a discussion on the major use for stainless steel after WWII. argon oxygen decarburization cutlery...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... high temperatures that have relatively low oxygen or steam contents, for which case a will apply, that is the atmosphere does not cause iron (or nickel) to oxidize but chromium (and aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, etc.) does. For simplicity, assume a binary system A-B of “noble” iron and “reactive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... continuously annealed and have the high formability required for deep-drawing applications. Vacuum degassing also removes hydrogen that can result in hydrogen flaking and porosity. Various manufacturing practices can affect the oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur contents and hence the cleanliness of the product...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... water at atmospheric pressure. In a feedwater heater, the dissolved oxygen content is brought down to about 2 ppm by heating the water to 90 °C (195 °F). This can be further reduced to 5–7 ppb by mechanical stripping or deaeration and by using chemical oxygen scavengers such as sodium sulfite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., chlorination, ion exchange, demineralization, reverse osmosis, caustic and chelant treatment, oxygen scavenging, and colloidal, carbonate, phosphate, and sodium aluminate conditioning. boiler tubes carryover corrosion scaling water chemistry internal water treatment external water treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... procedures for a wide range of alloys and environments. The examples also show how factors such as alloy concentration, crystal lattice orientation, temperature, and dissolved oxygen affect corrosion behavior. active-passive metals alloy systems anodic polarization cathodic polarization corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... in that density range ( section 5.2.2 in Chapter 5 ). Higher alloy content (for example, molybdenum, nitrogen) and low residual oxygen content reduce this problem, but more data are needed for reliable and specific recommendations. Table 6.3 Approximate critical sintering parameters for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... and Corrosion Resistance” ), they are nevertheless a fact of life and account to a large extent for the discrepancies in the mechanical properties data reported in the literature for PM stainless steels. Powder metallurgy processing is prone to wide variations in the interstitial contents (oxygen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... alternatives to the 300-series austenitics that are commonly plagued by failure as a result of chloride SCC. It was found that by controlling the interstitial element content (carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen) of these alloys by either ultrahigh purity processing or by stabilization, the formation of martensite...