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oxidizing gas

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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 8.16 Erosion behavior of alloys and coatings under hot, oxidizing combustion gas stream at 815 °C (1500 °F) and 366 m/s (1200 ft/s) with fly-ash as erodent. Source: Ref 25 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.21 Oxidation potentials of various elements in an endothermic gas atmosphere at 930 °C (1700 °F). Source: Ref 21.40 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.22 Surface oxidation in a gas carburized 8627 steel containing 0.92% Mn, 0.27% Si, 0.51%Cr, 0.22% Mo, and 0.52% Ni. Aspolished, Ni-plated surface (for edge retention), light micrograph. Source: Ref 21.42 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.58 Oxide scales formed on alloy 214 in a high-velocity gas stream (0.3 Mach velocity) with 30 min cycles at 1090 °C (2000 °F) for 500 h. Area 1: 96.5% Al, 1.5% Cr, 0.1% Fe, 1.9% Ni. Area 2: 75.2% Al, 6.2% Cr, 2.6% Fe, 16.0% Ni. Area 3: 95.8% Al, 1.0% Cr, 0.1% Fe, 3.1% Ni. Area 4: 53.0 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.60 Dynamic oxidation tests at 1100 °C (2010 °F) in a Mach 0.3 gas stream with each cycle consisting of 1 h at temperature followed by quenching to ambient temperature for 3 min. Source: Ref 78 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.74 A Co 3 O 4 oxide protrusion formed on cobalt immediately after test gas was switched from HF to air-HF mixture at 650 °C. The upper line indicates the Co 3 O 4 oxide protrusion, and the lower line indicates the CoF 2 phase formed at the interface between the Co 3 O 4 oxide More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Metal with oxide scale. (a) A protective scale that prevents gas access. (b) Schematic of electrochemical oxidation through a protective oxide scale that serves as electrolyte and electron lead. The case is for mobile cations More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 4 Protective and nonprotective scales formed on alloy 800. (a) Cr 2 O 3 -base protective oxide scale formed in sulfur-free oxidizing gas. (b) Sulfide-oxide scale formed in reducing conditions containing hydrogen sulfide. Courtesy of I.G. Wright, Battelle Columbus Division More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... by Gibbs energy changes. It plots the energy of formation for many important metal oxides and explains how to construct isothermal stability diagrams to analyze complex reactions involving metals, alloys, and gases containing more than one reactive component. gas-metal systems isothermal stability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-temperature oxidation sulfidation carburization hydrogen effects hot corrosion corrosion protection corrosion resistance WHEN METAL IS EXPOSED to an oxidizing gas at elevated temperature, corrosion can occur by direct reaction with the gas, without the need for the presence of a liquid electrolyte...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of the oxidizing gas according to: (Eq 2) Δ G = Δ G 0 + R T l n ( a M e X y a M p X 2 0.5 y ) In the case of alloy oxidation, for which temperatures are high enough to form mixed oxides or spinels, the activities of the oxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... with a sufficiently high flow rate to “unlock” the bed of aluminum oxide. This means that the bed is no longer “slumped,” but activated and bubbling. Great care must be taken not to have the gas flow rate so high that it will blow the aluminum oxide out of the bed. Any previous atmosphere in the bed (e.g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... of oxidation, the development of protective oxides, and the conditions associated with mixed gas corrosion and hot corrosion attack. It discusses oxidation and corrosion testing, the equipment used, and various ways to present the associated data. It describes the effect of gaseous oxidation on different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... temperature. Levy ( Ref 11 ) examined the erosion response of Type 310 as a function of temperature at incident angles of 30° and 90°. The test environment consisted of nitrogen gas (N 2 ), thus eliminating the effect of oxidation. The data indicated that there was significantly less erosion attack at a 90...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Gas carburizing is known to promote internal oxidation in steel which can adversely affect certain properties. This chapter discusses the root of the problem and its effect on component lifetime and performance. It explains that gas-carburizing atmospheres contain water vapor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... and a higher green strength. The coarser mesh fractions of this powder are used for making stainless steel filters possessing large pore sizes and large porosities. Nyborg et al. ( Ref 19 ) found the thicknesses of oxide layers for gas- and water-atomized stainless steel powders to be constant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Oxynitrocarburizing This process is simply an addendum at the end of the ferritic nitrocarburizing procedure. Oxynitrocarburizing involves introducing oxygen—in the form of steam, oxygen, or nitrous oxide—in a controlled manner into the process chamber. The process gas must be carefully selected. Steam may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in austenitic stainless steels as well as several forms of corrosion associated with welding. The effects of gas-tungsten arc weld shielding gas composition and heat-tint oxides on corrosion resistance are then covered. Microbiological corrosion of butt welds in water tanks is also illustrated. In addition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... will result in lower oxidation rates ( Fig. 7.2 ). Fig. 7.2 Mass gain measurements as a function of oxidation time at 1000 °C (1830 °F) for cold gas dynamic sprayed (CGDS) CoNiCrAlY coatings showing the influence of coating porosity on overall oxidation rate. Source: Ref 7.19 In another study...