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oxide scales

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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.1 (Part 1) Oxide scales formed below 570 °C. Figures (a) to (c) show the same area. (a) to (d) High-purity iron. (a) Oxidized at 550 °C. Unetched. 500×. (b) Cathodic ion beam (details given in Ref 3 ). 500×. (c) Scanning electron micrograph. Cathodic ion beam (details given More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.20 Heavy oxide scales formed on the side of Type 321 recuperator tube that was exposed to the incoming air after 6 months of service with the metal temperatures approximately 620 to 670 °C (1150 to 1240 °F). This tube was from the same batch of tubes that shows surface chromium More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.24 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered image) showing the oxide scales formed on the outside diameter of Type 321 tube (from supplier B) exposed to air at approximately 620 to 670 °C (1150 to 1240 °F) for 1008 hours. EDX analysis was performed to determine the chemical More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.47 Oxidation data in terms of metal loss, resulting from external oxide scales, and internal attack, resulting from internal oxide and/or void formation, for alumina-former alloy 214 and chromia/silica-former alloy HR160 along with several other nickel-and iron-base alloys, generated More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.58 Oxide scales formed on alloy 214 in a high-velocity gas stream (0.3 Mach velocity) with 30 min cycles at 1090 °C (2000 °F) for 500 h. Area 1: 96.5% Al, 1.5% Cr, 0.1% Fe, 1.9% Ni. Area 2: 75.2% Al, 6.2% Cr, 2.6% Fe, 16.0% Ni. Area 3: 95.8% Al, 1.0% Cr, 0.1% Fe, 3.1% Ni. Area 4: 53.0 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.5 Formation of internal aluminum nitrides beneath external oxide scales and internal oxides in alloy 601 after exposing to a furnace oxidizing atmosphere for approximately 4 to 5 years in a temperature range of 760 to 870 °C (1400 to 1600 °F). (a) Optical micrograph showing the external More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.30 Scanning electron micrograph showing oxide scales and internal oxides for alloy 601 exposed at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 400 h in Ar-20O 2 -0.25Cl 2 . The results of the EDX analysis of the corrosion products on the areas, as marked No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, and No. 5, are listed More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.25 Optical micrograph showing nonprotective Fe-Cr oxide scales formed on the ″430SS″ weld overlay. Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.77 Scanning electron micrograph showing the oxide scales formed on the nearby location of the one shown in Fig. 10.76 on the severely wasted area for Type 304H reheater tube. Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Metal with oxide scale. (a) A protective scale that prevents gas access. (b) Schematic of electrochemical oxidation through a protective oxide scale that serves as electrolyte and electron lead. The case is for mobile cations More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 6 Variation of the oxidation rate and oxide scale structure with alloy chromium content (based on isothermal studies at 1000 °C, or 1832 °F, in 0.13 atm oxygen) More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.5 Temperature gradients through the inner oxide scale, tube wall, outer oxide scale, and ash/slag deposits. Source: Ref 12 More
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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.66 Optical micrographs of (a) crack tip filled with oxide scale and copper deposits, 200×; and (b) inner surface showing penetration of oxide scale within the matrix of ferrite and pearlite, 400× More
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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 8.8 Plot of oxide scale thickness versus Larson-Miller parameter More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 6.18 A SEM backscattered electron micrograph of oxide scale penetration on the surface of an AISI/SAE 1045 steel. The dark-gray-appearing constituent is silicon-rich iron oxide (fayalite-Fe 2 SiO 4 ), the medium gray constituent is iron oxide (wustite-FeO), and the light gray constituent More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 7 Multilayer oxide scale formed on Co-10Cr alloy at 1100 °C (2012 °F). Outer layer is CoO; inner (mottled gray) layer is CoO containing dissolved chromium and particles of Co-Cr spinel. The chromium level in this alloy is insufficient to form a fully protective Cr 2 O 3 scale. Courtesy More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 8 Topography (a) and cross section (b) of oxide scale formed on Fe-18Cr alloy at 1100 °C (2012 °F). The bright areas on the alloy surface (a) are areas from which scale has spalled. The buckled scale and locally thickened areas (b) are iron-rich oxide. The thin scale layer adjacent More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 13.1 Schematic diagram illustrating oxide scale development on nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys with time. (a) Conversion of a thin alloy surface layer to oxide by rapid uptake of oxygen. The oxide phases formed are determined by the composition of the alloy. (b) Diffusion within the alloy More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.2 (Part 1) Oxide scale formed above the A 3 temperature and rapidly cooled. 0.3% C (0.29C-0.03Si-0.56Mn, wt%) normalized. Heated in air at 800 °C for 30 min. Cooled to room temperature at ~500 °C/h. (a) The white band at the top of the micrographs is an electrodeposit of nickel used More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.2 (Part 2) Oxide scale formed above the A 3 temperature and rapidly cooled. 0.3% C (0.29C-0.03Si-0.56Mn, wt%) normalized. Heated in air at 800 °C for 30 min. Cooled to room temperature at ~500 °C/h. (a) The white band at the top of the micrographs is an electrodeposit of nickel used More