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oxide and scale removal

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... for superalloys and how they work. It discusses the effect of metallic contaminants, tarnish, oxide, and scale and how they can be detected and removed. It also discusses chemical and mechanical surface finishing techniques and where they are used, and presents several application examples. finishing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the functions of surface treatments important for stainless steel, namely the removal of oxide scale and cleaning, brightening, and coloring of the stainless surface. Details on the main methods of producing aesthetic surface finishes are also provided...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... the removal of surface oxides, which can be in the form of a case scale or a thin oxide tarnish. Any oxide formed under 600 °C (1100 °F) on titanium alloys can be removed with a nitric-hydrofluoric acid pickle bath. Oxides formed at temperatures above 600 °C (1100 °F) can be removed either mechanically...
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.43 Cross sections of the specimens for alloy 601 (a) and alloy 214 (b) after oxidation testing in flowing air at 1090 °C (2000 °F) for 1008 h (samples were cycled to room temperature once every week). Samples were cathodically descaled to remove oxide scale prior to metallographic More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., and nickel oxides in the form of deposits was due to carryover. The presence of hematite, magnetite, and chromium oxide in the scale was in line with the oxidation behavior of alloy steels at elevated temperature. Some salient features are described here to establish the mechanism of scale formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... has low thermal conductivity and forms a dense porcelain-like scale that cannot be removed even with acids. Silica combines with a wide variety of elements to form silicates. Silica can form a scale at pressures exceeding 4 MPa (600 psi). The presence of silica in BFW in excess of 20 ppb and above 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... by the impinging particles for nickel and cobalt tested in air at 800 °C (1470 °F). In addition, thin, discontinuous oxide scales were observed to form on the eroded surface ( Ref 20 , 21 ). The impinging particles not only removed the oxide scales, but also caused significant plastic deformation on the metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... alloys, discusses the formation of oxide scale in the presence of mixed gases, and explains how alloy composition contributes to oxide growth. The chapter discusses the underlying chemistry of hot corrosion, how to identify its effects, and how it progresses under various conditions. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... on the surface when the scale is removed. Increasing the austenitizing temperature increases the amount of scale, which may cause the heat-treated workpiece to not have the required final surface finish. Subsurface conditions can produce weaknesses that lead to product failure, such as found with blisters...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... This is commonly referred to as “black annealing,” as opposed to “bright annealing,” which is performed in a protective atmosphere, such as hydrogen atmosphere. The oxide scales on the alloy plate, sheet, or tubing are generally removed by acid pickling. This manufacturing process can often produce flat products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... O 3 . The oxide nodules that appear after some hours of oxidation may develop at local areas where the graphite is removed by oxidation or diffusion or by incorporation into the scale. Internal Oxidation Internal oxidation (formation of oxides beneath the surface) takes place when any metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... III involves in-depth inspection and generation of material data from the samples removed from the component (destructive testing). A wide range of destructive and nondestructive tests are performed during RLA. The various tests include ultrasonic testing for thickness and oxide scales...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... in a vacuum environment, which must be free from volatile contaminants and parent metal components that are disfigured by oxide scale. The categories of joining atmospheres that are available and their interrelationships are shown in Fig. 3.1 . Generally, fluxes are needed only when carrying out the joining...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... in which the reacted metal forms a thick surface layer of oxide, known as scale. Oxidation can also remove critical alloying elements of the metal from the surface. The most important example is decarburization, the removal of carbon from the surface of steel. (In this reaction, carbon is removed as carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... When the tube skin temperature exceeded the melting point of these compounds, they became fluxed with the oxide film, leading to its removal by dissolution. With persistent removal of the scale from the outer surface on account of fluxing due to the presence of low-melting alkali compounds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... oxide particles can be retained in voids in the specimen or at the specimen surface (at a steel/oxide-scale interface or a steel/mounting material interface, etc.). Figure 7.1 shows an example of silicon carbide particles embedded into the polished surface of a nickel-plated steel specimen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Darkens wüstite (FeO) in an oxide scale. Nitric-Acetic Acid Composition Stock solution: Dilute 1:1 with water immediately before use. Method of Use Immerse at room temperature and swab off the carbonaceous deposit occasionally. Use A macroetchant effective for delineating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... it apparently had existed in 1st-century China. In reverberatory furnaces (in which the metal was heated from above; also called puddling furnaces), iron ore, iron scale, or iron scrap was added to liquid pig iron, together with fluxes. The oxidizing additions would decrease silicon, manganese, and carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... The tube metal temperature for the supercritical unit is generally higher than that of a subcritical unit. Other factors that can affect tube metal temperature include oxide scales formed on the tube inside diameter (ID) surface, slag deposits on the tube outside diameter (OD) surface, flame impingement...