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oxidation state

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
...<xref rid="t65940001-t1-tn1" ref-type="table-fn">(a)</xref> Table 1.1 Summary of processes, terminology, and variables associated with aqueous corrosion (a) Anode Area, A a Reactions (oxidation)  General, M → M m+ + me  Reduced stateoxidized state  Example, Fe → Fe 2+ + 2e Cathode Area, A c Reactions (reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... reduction processes. As iron in the ores is in an oxidized state (Fe +3 , Fe +2 ), the chemical reaction that transforms it into metallic iron (Fe 0 ) is a reduction reaction, and such processes are therefore called reduction processes. 2.1.1 The Blast Furnace The classical process for reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... ), and bulk ( V B ) voltages, then electrons (minority carriers) from the p -well are attracted to the thin oxide interface (hatched area, Fig. 2a ). This second important bias state, called the non-saturated state , exists when a continuous electron inversion region connects the source and drain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., including ultraviolet light absorbers, oxidation inhibitors, and the use of protective coatings, are also considered. Sunlight Ultraviolet Light When light is absorbed by a plastic, the energy is used to promote an electron in the absorbing chromophore to an excited state. Photochemistry begins...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the formation and control of aqueous corrosion in iron and steel. It also provides information on passivation, stress corrosion, rust, and direct oxidation. aqueous corrosion corrosion control direct oxidation THE COST OF CORROSION in the United...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Board Expansion Program of Domestic Beryllium Industry increased the productive capacity of beryllium products in the domestic industry. As of April 1942, this company was processing approximately one-third of the beryl ore used in United States’ production. It reduced ore to beryllium oxide; processed...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 9 Quasi-steady-state approximation of the moving boundary problem of internal oxidation. Counterdiffusion of B is assumed to be negligible More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and oxidized species, respectively. The standard electrode potential is determined for the special condition of all elements in the reaction in a pure state and all ions at 1 M concentration. Electrode potential increases or decreases from the value of the standard electrode potential based on the ratio...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... by mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, and, for thermoplastic composites, welding; the making of glass-to-metal seals; and joining of oxide and nonoxide ceramics to themselves and to metals by solid-state processes and by brazing. The classification, types, applications, and the mechanism of each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Mechanical treatments such as grinding and shot peening are often employed in the production of case-carburized parts. Grinding, besides restoring precision, removes carbide films, internal oxidation, and high-temperature transformation products. Shot peening strengthens component...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.25 Longitudinal cross section of a hot rolled plate of medium carbon steel, treated with calcium in the liquid state to achieve inclusion globularization. In this case, the inclusions are classified as globular oxides according to ASTM E45, severity 1.5, fine series. Courtesy More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
..., cast iron Fair Titanium, zirconium, beryllium, graphite, ceramics Difficult Comparative values for free energies of formation of metal oxides of common braze constituents and selected metals at room temperature (25 °C, or 77 °F) Table 3.2 Comparative values for free energies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
...Comparative values for free energies of formation of metal oxides of common solder constituents and selected metals at room temperature (25 °C or 77 °F) Table 3.1 Comparative values for free energies of formation of metal oxides of common solder constituents and selected metals at room...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... where f i , n i , and M i are the weight fraction, valence, and molar mass of element i , respectively. Penetration rates for a current of 1 μA/cm<sup>2</sup> (mpy) Table 1 Penetration rates for a current of 1 μA/cm 2 (mpy) Alloy Element/oxidation state Density, g/cm 3 EW...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...-loss electrons, the Auger energy levels sometimes shift when an atom becomes oxidized, nitrided, and so on; therefore, information on the chemical state of the surface atoms may sometimes be obtained from Auger analysis. Scanning electron microscopes often contain a backscattered electron detector...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., the potential decay curves, and other electrochemical measurements. A major controversy among investigators concerns whether the initial state of passivation is only a chemisorbed monolayer of oxygen ions or is actually an oxide layer ( Ref 1 ). Passivity can be produced when electrochemical measurements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to that of the original ores that are in a more thermodynamically stable state. When metals come in contact with the atmosphere (oxygen) and water (moisture) in the presence of corrosive species such as chlorides or sulfur dioxide, the corrosion process starts, and corrosion products such as oxides, hydroxides...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.73 (a) Oxide inclusion in as-cast steel. The sperical shape of the inclusion may indicate that it precipitated in the liquid state of the steel. SEM, SE. (b) EDS spectrum from the nonmetallic inclusion. The calculated quantitative analysis from the EDS data is listed on the right More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., it is 1). When PBR is greater than 1, then the oxide is expected to be in compression and is likely to be protective, whereas if it is less than 1, the oxide is in tension and thus nonprotective. There are, however, many exceptions to this, partly because the stress state often depends more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., which can revert back to hydrated iron oxides (rust) in the presence of oxygen and water ( Fig. 15.1 ). In this example, the metal returns to its more chemically stable state from the reactions it has with the surrounding environment. Fig. 15.1 The corrosion cycle of steel Corrosion...