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oxidation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the thermally induced changes that occur on the surface of steel exposed to different environments. It explains how oxide scales form during heat treating and how factors such as temperature, composition, and surface finish affect growth rates, grain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Abstract Abstract Stainless steel retains strength and has excellent oxidation resistance from room temperature to nearly 1000 deg C relative to competitive materials. This chapter focuses on the high-temperature oxidation of stainless steel by oxygen or water vapor. It begins by discussing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Abstract Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
...Abstract Abstract Gas carburizing is known to promote internal oxidation in steel which can adversely affect certain properties. This chapter discusses the root of the problem and its effect on component lifetime and performance. It explains that gas-carburizing atmospheres contain water vapor...
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 13.8 Effects of nonuniform oxidation on superalloys. (a) Accelerated oxidation of MC carbide (arrow) at surface of MAR-M-200 nickel-base superalloy at 927 °C (1700 °F), and (b) accelerated oxidation of grain boundary in U-700 nickel-base superalloy at 760 °C (1400 °F) More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.21 Oxidation potentials of various elements in an endothermic gas atmosphere at 930 °C (1700 °F). Source: Ref 21.40 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.22 Surface oxidation in a gas carburized 8627 steel containing 0.92% Mn, 0.27% Si, 0.51%Cr, 0.22% Mo, and 0.52% Ni. Aspolished, Ni-plated surface (for edge retention), light micrograph. Source: Ref 21.42 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.23 Surface oxidation in a carburized 20MnCr5 steel containing 1.29% Mn, 0.44% Si, 1.24% Cr, 0.25% Ni, and 0.0015% B. Aspolished, Ni-plated surface, SEM micrograph. Source: Ref 21.42 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17.61 “Burned” (oxidized) gray cast iron. Oxidation happened from the left to the right of the image. In the image right side, the disappearance of the graphite flakes can be noticed. On the left, it is possible to see the empty spaces caused by graphite oxidation already filled with oxide. More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 57 Illustration of grain-boundary oxidation of carburized 20MnCr5 to a depth of 30 μm. Unetched. Original magnification: 200×. Courtesy of Fluidtherm Technology P. Ltd., Ambattur, India More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 58 Illustration of grain-boundary oxidation with nonmartensitic transformation products to a depth of approximately 30 μm. Etchant: nital. Original magnification: 200×. Courtesy of Fluidtherm Technology P. Ltd., Ambattur, India More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 59 Intergranular oxidation of the surface along prior grain boundaries in a carburized steel. Original magnification: 1000×. Source: Ref 78 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 60 Correlation of calculated total oxidation potential (TOP) and average depth of internal oxidation More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 61 Effect of chromium content of steel on the depth of oxidation More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 12.12 Direct oxidation. Oxide forms by diffusion of anions and electrons to the oxide-air surface. More
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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.47 Schematic showing oxidation of T91 steel in steam environment. Source: Ref 6.10 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 13.2 Oxidation of chromium steels at 1000 °C (1830 °F). Source: Ref 13.3 , p 461 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.17 Relationship between the average crack propagation rate and the oxidation (i.e., dissolution and oxide growth) kinetics on a straining surface for several ductile alloy/aqueous environment systems More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.2 Effect of time and temperature on oxidation of Rene 41 precipitation-hardened nickel-base alloy More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 13.5 Oxidation resistance of Nimonic nickel-base superalloys during continuous heating of foil for 100 h in air. Weight change determined after oxide descaling More