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organic acids

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 17 Isocorrosion curves in organic acids: (a) acetic acid; (b) formic acid. Source: Ref 8 . Courtesy of Outokumpu Stainless More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 16 Variation in organic acid ring structures in naphthenic acids derived from crude oils compared to reagent-grade naphthenic acid. B.P., boiling point. Source: Ref 35 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 14 Carbon steel wires from a prestressing tendon of a nuclear power plant showing the damage resulting from the formation of organic acids in the tendon due to the breakdown of grease by the bacteria present in the tendon. Source: Ref 9 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms, that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of corrosive environments. The most common is an aqueous environment containing inorganic and organic acids. However, other aqueous corrosion processes in the refinery can also be due to the presence of oxygen, bisulfide, cyanide, microbiological growth, or other corrosion-inducing species. Nonaqueous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... hydrobromic, hydriodic, sulfamic, oxalic, trichloroacetic, and formic acids. Weakly reducing acids, such as boric acid, carbonic acid, aqueous hydrogen sulfide, and sulfurous acid do not attack titanium. Most organic acids do not attack titanium, with the exceptions of oxalic, trichloroacetic, and formic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... with aqueous mineral or organic acids. 10.4 Beryllium Carboxylates The beryllium salts of organic acids can be divided into normal beryllium carboxylates, Be(RCOO) 2 , and beryllium oxide carboxylates, Be 4 O(RCOO) 6 . The latter are prepared by dissolving beryllium oxide, hydroxide, or oxide carbonate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... surface, thus changing the chemical concentrations and pH at and near the solid-liquid interface where the corrosion takes place. Some species of microbes can produce organic acids, such as formic and succinic, or mineral acids, such as H 2 SO 4 . These chemicals are corrosive to many metals. One...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... austenitic cast irons, commonly referred to as Ni-Resists, contain large percentages of nickel (18 to 36%) and copper and are fairly resistant to concentrated sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and phosphoric (H 3 PO 4 ) acids at slightly elevated temperatures, hydrochloric acid (HCl) at room temperature, and organic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... their limiting lack of mechanical properties, mainly toughness. General Corrosion The duplex alloys offer important advantages in performance over the austenitic grades in a number of significant aggressive media, including sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, phosphoric acid, and organic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... greatly, but the optimal materials remain duplex for various reasons. The subsequent stage is blow tanks in which the pulp suspension is injected at high velocity. The environment is a mixture of alkaline liquid, while the vapor phase can contain organic acids. The hardness of the duplex helps mitigate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... antifouling paint systems because aluminum and its alloys do not inhibit growth of marine organisms. Aluminum is impervious to worms and borers, and the acids exuded from marine organisms are not corrosive to aluminum; however, the accumulation of biofouling on the bottom of the boat impairs performance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of these inhibitors are produced from only a few basic types of starting molecules. Fatty acids and some form of basic nitrogen-containing precursor are the principal activeingredient sources. Historically, the first proprietary organic inhibitors were fatty imidazolines made from by-product fatty acids...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... these early beginnings, several organizations now offer anodic protection equipment and services. Anodic Protection Uses Anodic protection has been used most extensively to protect equipment for storage and handling of sulfuric acid ( Ref 10 , 11 ). Several companies advertise their capabilities...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... are atmospheric and marine environments and chemical environments such as sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, strong bases, and organic acids, such as acetic and formic. Pickling is an example of controlled, accelerated uniform corrosion. This is typically done with 10 to 20% hot sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56080029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-460-4
..., and the development of a test plan to evaluate the long-term corrosion protection of a potential inhibitor. acid pickling corrosion current density corrosion inhibitors corrosion kinetics corrosion potential inhibitor efficiency PDS curves Stern-Geary equation Tafel slope Problem 1 List...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Esters are the reaction products of organic acids and alcohols ( Fig 6.8 ). The ester linkage -C-O-R is very stable and the resulting lubricants have high temperature stability. Figure 6.8: Structures of synthetic esters. Because organic acids may contain one or two -COOH groups (mono...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56080001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-460-4
... such as FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are widely used for characterizing organic inhibitor films adsorbed onto a metal surface. Fig. 5 displays the FTIR spectra of steel surfaces treated by tannic acid (TAA) and by cerium-TAA complex. The appearance of characteristic peaks of TAA molecules in the spectra...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... ·(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ·24H 2 O. Centrifugation removes the crystals. Organic chelating agents, such as the sodium salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and triethanolamine, are added to the centrifugate. Addition of sodium hydroxide yields the reactions: (Eq 7.6) BeSO 4 + 2 NaOH → Na...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627084604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-460-4