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optical microscopes

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract Moore's Law has driven many degree circuit features below the resolving capability of optical microscopy. Yet the optical microscope remains a valuable tool in failure analysis. This article describes the physics governing resolution and useful techniques for extracting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... useful magnification for a given combination of optical resolution and visual acuitity. (From Van Duijn, Ref. 12, courtesy of Microscope Publications.) Figure 4-10 Relationship between numerical aperature, wavelength, and depth of field. Figure 4-11 Axial resolving power...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the various phases. The chapter concludes with a brief review of spheroidized microstructures. electron microscopes grain structure heat treatment microstructure optical microscopes steel THE OPTICAL MICROSCOPE is the principal tool used to characterize the internal grain structure of steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... aberration. Metallurgical microscope features such as apochromatic objectives, hyperplane oculars, vertical illuminators, counting reticles, widefield oculars, polarization filters, field diaphragms, interferometers, and tungsten-halogen lamps are explained. The optical system, nosepiece, types of objectives...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... for Metals , 1972 , p 157 – 192 Fig. D.1 Laves phase (white islands) has precipitated at dendrites in the gamma matrix. Optical microscope, original magnification 250x. Condition: Solution treated and aged—solution annealed 1 h at 1095 °C (2000 °F), air cooled, reannealed 1 h at 980 °C (1800 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 1400 times (1400x) ( Ref 1 ). Although optical microscopes that can provide magnifications higher than this are available on the market, the results are called “empty” magnifications, because they will not provide additional information when compared with the maximum magnification of around 1400x ( Ref...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... metallurgical microscope ( metallograph ) is shown in Fig. 6 . The prepared specimen is placed on the stage with the surface perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope and is illuminated through the objective lens by light from the source. The light is focused by the condenser lens into a beam...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and optical and electron microscopy. It presents a number of images recorded using these methods and explains what they reveal about the mode of fracture and the state of the component prior to failure. fractography microscopic examination macroscopy IN FAILURE ANALYSIS, examination is done...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... that opens and closes the doors to the undercarriage compartment. The failed component was removed from the aircraft and examined using optical and electron microscopes. Under low magnification, the fracture surface appeared jagged except for one corner that was relatively smooth. SEM fractography revealed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract The quill shaft in an aircraft engine was found in two pieces following a flameout. One piece was short, straight, and otherwise undamaged; the other piece was bent in several places as was the sleeve that covered it. The facture surface, as viewed under optical and scanning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... optical and electron microscopes, indicating that the operating loads on the bolts far exceeded the design loads. Based on their observations, which are summarized in the report, failure analysts concluded that the design of the connecting rod system needs to be reassessed. connecting rod bolts SEM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... visits and/or telephone conversations). Quite often, failure analysis could be accomplished with a curve tracer, some package decapsulation tools and techniques, and an optical microscope. More subtle problems required a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and possibly energy dispersive spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... are to arm analysts with an understanding of how the tools function and provide the tenants that will assist in determining how best to employ a given approach for a given situation. All of the methods described can be performed on a standard SOM (scanning optical microscope) using the proper laser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... by the electron beam alters the absorbed sample current. [12] The utility and unique capabilities of the scanning electron microscope will make it a mainstay in failure analysis for the foreseeable future. It is always a good idea to inspect a new sample in an optical microscope before putting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Comparative data for different microscopic techniques Table 5.2 Comparative data for different microscopic techniques Feature Optical microscope SEM TEM Application Surface and sectional examination Surface morphology Crystal structure studies, phase analysis Illumination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... of 2 to 5% nitric acid (HNO 3 ) with methyl alcohol, a mixture often called nital—“nit” for the acid and “al” for the alcohol. This process is known as etching, which causes the shiny surface to become a dull color. If the sample is now viewed in an optical microscope at a magnification of 100...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... development yield ramp-up. Traditional Failure Analysis Process Wafer-level Failure Analysis Process Static and Dynamic Fault Isolation Overview The current state-of-the-art scanning optical microscope (SOM) tool enables both static and dynamic fault isolation to be performed on the same tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... is generally a macroscopic phenomenon resulting from a series of microscopic and submicroscopic processes. Although molecular theories of polymer fracture are a subject of continuing research, practical fracture analysis is achievable from examining deformation events within the resolution of optical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... inspection. Etching is complete when surface of the unit appears. Figure 3 shows an optical image from a unit after the backside silicon etch process was completed. Figure 3 An optical microscope image from a unit after the backside silicon etch process was completed. Silicon is removed from regions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... or corner damage is a commonly seen failure mechanism so thorough inspection with optical, SEM and IR microscope needs to be added to the regular failure analysis process flow when analyzing WLCSP devices. With new technology continuously scaling down of the transistor size to sub-10nm, and more...