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optical approaches

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... and subassemblies from the failed system. There are numerous techniques and technologies available for examining and analyzing components and subassemblies, which are categorized as follows: optical approaches, dimensional inspection and related approaches, nondestructive test approaches, mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract As semiconductor feature sizes have shrunk, the technology needed to encapsulate modern integrated circuits has expanded. Due to the various industry changes, package failure analyses are becoming much more challenging; a systematic approach is therefore critical. This article proposes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract The orientation of the devices within a package determine the best chosen approach for access to a select component embedded in epoxy both in package or System in Package and multi-chip module (MCM). This article assists the analyst in making decisions on frontside access using flat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... are to arm analysts with an understanding of how the tools function and provide the tenants that will assist in determining how best to employ a given approach for a given situation. All of the methods described can be performed on a standard SOM (scanning optical microscope) using the proper laser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... root cause that has the most impact on yield. A 100% failure analysis success based on a couple of worse failing dies is no longer meaningful to yield. To ensure a fast product yield ramp-up, a prompt, conclusive, defect-learning approach is necessary in order to devise a precise corrective action...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... requires a microscopical imaging of the structures. Miniaturization of IC devices has followed Moore’s law for such a long time that image resolution is a critical topic for optical CFI and PE in particular. The general approach of diffraction limited image resolution R in optical microscopy is Abbe’s law...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... was performed at metallographic cross sections of the sample, in addition to the lateral localization by front-side LIT imaging. For this analysis approach, a site specific cross section of the device was prepared by stepwise grinding and polishing. Optical navigation was possible by gluing the sample onto...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... contrast, 40× objective Fig. 10.5 Preformed-particle-modified interlayer regions of various carbon fiber composite materials showing differences in the optical analysis technique and the sample-preparation method. (a) Reflected-light optical analysis of an interlayer region showing particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to ceramic cavity devices, injection molded parts, and ball grid arrays. backside preparation ball grid arrays ceramic cavity devices injection molded parts milling optics polishing thinning This tutorial will assist the analyst in making decisions on backside thinning and polishing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the most effective tools for investigating boiler tube failures, including scanning electron microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... to be tilted or positioned in unique orientations with respect to the optic axis. Ideally, though, the sample holder allows the user to position a sample anywhere and in any orientation in 4 STEM-in-SEM the vacant space between the SEM pole piece and the transmission detector. To that end, single-sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Laser Voltage Probing (LVP) is a key enabling technology that has matured into a well-established and essential analytical optical technique that is crucial for observing and evaluating internal circuit activity. This article begins by providing an overview on LVP history and LVP...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Moore's Law has driven many degree circuit features below the resolving capability of optical microscopy. Yet the optical microscope remains a valuable tool in failure analysis. This article describes the physics governing resolution and useful techniques for extracting the small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... functionality has to be maintained during the process. This leads to the requirement of adding additional techniques that help isolate and image defects that are buried deeply within the board structure. This article demonstrates an approach of advanced board level failure analysis by using several non...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and unwanted environmental interaction. Equilibrium can be approached from two directions: (1) slow cooling and heating, or (2) long-term isothermal heat treatment. In general, the longer the time to approach equilibrium, the closer to equilibrium one can get. For the cooling and heating process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... well beyond 11 nm, “killer defects” may only be a few nanometers in size. In some cases, the defects are non-visible, i.e. there is no particle that can be imaged by optical microscope or SEM. The increasing number of transistors on a die and tendency to 3D packaging is also introducing more levels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... material performance (e.g., fuels and explosives). Contaminants can interfere with painting and other coating operations, allowing corrosion to accelerate, coatings to flake off, and so on. There are numerous techniques for confirming contaminant presence. Magnification, optical microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., and an optical microscope. More subtle problems required a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and possibly energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The investment in failure analysis tools was modest. $250,000 bought all of the tools that were necessary to do most any analysis job. More importantly, the investment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... approaches used for these components. It discusses different types of capacitors along with their constructions and failure modes. The types include tantalum, aluminum electrolytic, multi-layered ceramics, film, and super capacitors. The article then provides a discussion on the two common types of inductors...