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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... through Monkman-Grant-type relationships (i.e., ∊ ˙ t r ≃ constant ) to be discussed later. Because components of power plants and process industries are designed to operate for times in excess of 100,000 h, extrapolation of laboratory creep and rupture data to actual service...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... under heat. Experienced mold conditioners know the optimum distance for the spray gun depending on the dilution. This is one area in which operators do not have a proven and affordable technology for real-time measurement and control of coating thickness. Effective heat transfer values...
Book Chapter

By Eren Billur
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
.... The chapter goes on to describe the load, energy, and time-dependent characteristics of hydraulic presses and the factors that determine accuracy. It also explains how hydraulic presses are used for deep drawing, fine blanking, and hydroforming as well as warm forming and hot stamping operations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the types of sensors used in sheet forming operations and the information they provide. It explains how force sensors protect equipment from overloads due to tool wear, friction, and misfeeds, how displacement and proximity sensors help to prevent die crashes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in most practical applications. These systems also provide high imaging speed so that operator can manipulate samples’ position and view multiple angles to make real-time observations. Some manufacturers have also provided integration to CAD design data to allow live overlay on 3D X-ray images for direct...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... is non steady state. Contact between the deforming metal and the dies is intermittent. The length of contact time and the nature of the heat transfer at the die/material interface influence temperatures very significantly. A simple example of an operation involving non-steady-state metal flow is the cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract Fracture control can be defined as a concerted effort to maintain operating safety without catastrophic failure by fracture. It requires an understanding of how cracks affect structural integrity and strength and the time that a crack can grow before it exceeds permissible size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of induction heating and related engineering considerations. It describes the design and operation of induction coils, the magnitude and distribution of magnetic fields, and the forces that generate eddy currents in metals. It explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... densities (6 to 15 times lower) than hardening. Power supplies: Because the output power needed for hardening is substantially greater than for tempering, the use of the same power supply for both hardening and tempering may not be possible. Some types of power supplies cannot operate at very low power...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... on the amount of material that is processed per unit time, the peak temperature, and the material’s heat capacity at this temperature. Power specification for other operations, such as surface hardening of steel, is not as simple because of the effects of starting material condition (prior microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... enough, it will come up heads approximately 50% of the time and tails the other 50%. The mean time between failures (MTBF) is the total number of hours of operation divided by the number of failures. Assume a particular type of resistor has experienced a total of 850,000 hours of service, and during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... As timing periods become shorter, the magnetic-hysteresis effect in saturable reactors prevents their being used for high-speed on/off operation. The delay between reactor energization and the point at which the reactor achieves its preset power level can be considerable when compared with heating time...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... . Table 11.2 Procedure for removing scale from superalloys Operation Time, min Temperature Solution Concentration °C °F Precleaning cycle Vapor degreasing 5–10 87–88 185–190 Stabilized trichloroethylene … Emulsion cleaning 10–20 54–66 130–150 Emulsion cleaner 20 vol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Resistance to microstructural change or to mechanical deformation is a sensitive function of time, temperature, stress, and environment. At lower temperatures, in nonvibratory service (below the yield strength), operational loads on components can be carried indefinitely in the absence of any corrosive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... to yield, thin, and form a longitudinal crack. This type of failure can occur during short time exposures such as a fire, from overheating in equipment operations, or under long time conditions under creep conditions. Examples of high-temperature fractures of tubing are shown in Fig. 5 to 7 . Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... Report, Electric Power Research Institute , Palo Alto, CA , 1987 56. Roberts D.I. , “ Magnetic Oxide Thickness Time-Temperature Models for 2¼Cr-1Mo Operating in High Pressure Steam, ” letter communication to the author, from G.A. Technologies , San Diego , 1986 57. French D.N...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... stresses decrease the rate of crack propagation. Hence, much longer plant operating times are needed for intergranular SCC in large-diameter pipes. To complete this discussion of the role of residual stresses in intergranular SCC, three other important factors must be considered: the permanence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... material to finished product. Early in-service failures of components after heat treatment may result from improper planning, lack of required equipment, nonqualified personnel, not enough time to execute the expected operations, or even a combination of some or all of these deficiencies (Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... in the case of wheels, because design and process engineering are colocated in the wheel manufacturer’s operations. Each engineering facility that uses simulation needs to build the database and validate the analysis by confirming it over a period of time using radiographs and cut sections of castings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., 2 mm (0.08 in.) or more in size, on unprotected aluminum alloy surfaces caused severe erosion, which seriously limited operational time in rain storms. Elastomeric coatings such as polyurethane are widely used to protect aluminum aircraft surfaces from rain erosion. Preliminary examination...