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open-die forging

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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 10 Open-die forging. Source: Ref 9 Definition Open-die forging is a hot forging process in which metal is shaped by hammering or pressing between flat or simple contoured dies. Equipment Hydraulic presses, hammers Materials Carbon and alloy steels, aluminum alloys More
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 11 Four types of die sets commonly used in open-die forging. Source: Ref 10 More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 6.10 Ingot breakdown with a two-column 1000-ton pull-down open-die forging press. Cast ingots positioned with 6-ton railbound manipulator. Courtesy of AK Steel More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 11 Macroetched transverse section of an 8 × 8 × 24 in. open-die forging of 7075-T6 showing the location of three SCC test specimens. They had widely different stress-corrosion resistance as would be expected from their grain structure orientation. See the text for an explanation More
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 2.9 Open-die forging More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 16.10 Open- and closed-die forging More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... processes, including closed-die forging, extrusion, electrical upsetting, radial forging, hobbing, isothermal forging, open-die forging, orbital forging, and coining. forging processes 2.1 Introduction In forging, an initially simple part—a billet, for example—is plastically deformed between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., including open-die and closed-die forging, hot upset and roll forging, high-energy-rate forging, ring rolling, rotary swaging, radial and orbital forging, isothermal and hot-die forging, precision forging, and cold forging. The chapter also includes information on cold and hot extrusion and drawing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... forming is the nature of the resulting deformation. Bulk forming operations typically involve multidirectional deformation throughout the volume of the worked mass. The generic types of bulk working methods include extrusion, forging, rolling, and drawing. Some methods, such as open-die forging and radial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the equipment and processes used to convert titanium billet and bar into useful shapes or more refined product forms. These secondary working operations include open-die, closed-die, hot-die and isothermal forging as well as ring rolling and extruding...
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 6.2 Open-die “pancake” forgings of Waspaloy nickel-base superalloy More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the properties and homogeneity of the microstructure; therefore, forging is often used to prepare cast ingots for other bulk deformation processes, such as hot rolling; and (2) forging is also a major method of producing semifinished or near-net shapes. Forging processes can be described as open-die forging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... components are produced by: Die forging Upsetting Extrusion forging Roll forging Swaging (or versions using proprietary rotary forging machines) Ring rolling Two or more of these methods used in sequence The die forging categories can be subdivided into: Open-die forgings...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current, and radiographic inspection. Flaws Originating in the Ingot Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots. Most closed-die forgings and upset forgings are produced from billets, rolled bar stock, or preforms. Many, though...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... or as a preforming step, solid shafts with varying or constant diameter along the length and tubes with internal or external varying diameter. All these parts require symmetrical reduction of cross sections. For some of these applications, open-die forging presses cannot be used economically because they are limited...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... components. Forming is the primary way in which shapes derived from plate or sheet are prepared. Forging General Aspects Titanium alloy forgings are produced by all the forging methods currently available. These methods include open-die, closed-die, rotary forging, and others. Selection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... of gear blanks which would subsequently be cut/machined into the final desired configuration. Gear blanks have been produced by open-die forging, closed-die forging ( Fig. 7 ), and hot upset forging. During the past thirty-five years there has been considerable research and development aimed at producing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... by the cavity in the closed-die upset, deformation is less than in the open upset. Hence, a modification of the traditional slab method is made to account for the reduced deformation zone to predict the forging load. Equation 17.4(a) is modified and presented as [ Altan et al., 1996 ]: (Eq 17.4b) L...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... It describes special cases of segregation, including banding and why it occurs, and the application of closed die forging. The chapter also presents several examples of hot working defects, including forging laps, cracks, and overheated or burned steel. closed die forging hot working inclusions open...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (roll), open-die tooling Hot forging —temperature, strain and strain rate, forge center cell, loading and transfer device, lubrication, parts collection, and inspection Trimming —trimmer unit and capacity, flash removal, temperature trace of product flashline Causes of defects during hot...